Journal of Genetic Counseling

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 935–946 | Cite as

Psychosocial Profiles of Parents of Children with Undiagnosed Diseases: Managing Well or Just Managing?

  • Allyn McConkie-Rosell
  • Stephen R. Hooper
  • Loren D. M. Pena
  • Kelly Schoch
  • Rebecca C. Spillmann
  • Yong-Hui Jiang
  • Heidi Cope
  • Undiagnosed Diseases Network
  • Christina Palmer
  • Vandana Shashi
Original Research


Little is known about the psychosocial profiles of parents who have a child with an undiagnosed chronic illness. The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) evaluates individuals with intractable medical findings, with the objective of discovering the underlying diagnosis. We report on the psychosocial profiles of 50 parents whose children were accepted to one of the network’s clinical sites. Parents completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, coping self-efficacy, and health care empowerment at the beginning of their child’s UDN clinical evaluation. Parents of undiagnosed children had high rates of anxiety and depression (~ 40%), which were significantly inversely correlated with coping self-efficacy, but not with health care empowerment. Coping self-efficacy, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were better in parents with older children and with longer duration of illness. Gender differences were identified, with mothers reporting greater health care engagement than fathers. Overall, our findings suggest that parents of children with undiagnosed diseases maintain positive coping self-efficacy and remain actively engaged in health care and to a lesser degree tolerance for uncertainty, but these come with a high emotional cost to the parents. As the parents’ psychological needs may not be obvious, these should be ascertained and the requisite support provided.


Undiagnosed disease Parent Depression Anxiety Coping self-efficacy Health care empowerment Tolerance of uncertainty Whole exome sequencing Diagnostic odyssey 


Authors’ Contributions

AMR, VS, and SH contributed equally to project in terms of design of study, analysis of study data, coordination of project, and manuscript preparation and drafting. LP, YHJ, KS, RS, CP, and HC all participated in drafting of the manuscript. KS and RS assisted in data collection. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network is responsible for application (patient) allocation to the Duke UDN site. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Undiagnosed Diseases Network Members (October 2017)

David R. Adams, Mercedes E. Alejandro, Patrick Allard, Euan A. Ashley, Mahshid S. Azamian, Carlos A. Bacino, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Hayk Barseghyan, Gabriel F. Batzli, Alan H. Beggs, Hugo J. Bellen, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Anna Bican, David P. Bick, Camille L. Birch, Devon Bonner, Braden E. Boone, Bret L. Bostwick, Lauren C. Briere, Donna M. Brown, Matthew Brush, Elizabeth A. Burke, Lindsay C. Burrage, Shan Chen, Gary D. Clark, Terra R. Coakley, Joy D. Cogan, Cynthia M. Cooper, Heidi Cope, William J. Craigen, Precilla D’Souza, Mariska Davids, Jean M. Davidson, Jyoti G. Dayal, Esteban C. Dell’Angelica, Shweta U. Dhar, Ani Dillon, Katrina M. Dipple, Laurel A. Donnell-Fink, Naghmeh Dorrani, Daniel C. Dorset, Emilie D. Douine, David D. Draper, Annika M. Dries, David J. Eckstein, Lisa T. Emrick, Christine M. Eng, Gregory M. Enns, Ascia Eskin, Cecilia Esteves, Tyra Estwick, Liliana Fernandez, Paul G. Fisher, Brent L. Fogel, Noah D. Friedman, William A. Gahl, Emily Glanton, Rena A. Godfrey, David B. Goldstein, Sarah E. Gould, Jean-Philippe F. Gourdine, Catherine A. Groden, Andrea L. Gropman, Melissa Haendel, Rizwan Hamid, Neil A. Hanchard, Lori H. Handley, Matthew R. Herzog, Ingrid A. Holm, Jason Hom, Ellen M. Howerton, Yong Huang, Howard J. Jacob, Mahim Jain, Yong-hui Jiang, Jean M. Johnston, Angela L. Jones, David M. Koeller, Isaac S. Kohane, Jennefer N. Kohler, Donna M. Krasnewich, Elizabeth L. Krieg, Joel B. Krier, Jennifer E. Kyle, Seema R. Lalani, C. Christopher Lau, Jozef Lazar, Brendan H. Lee, Hane Lee, Shawn E. Levy, Richard A. Lewis, Sharyn A. Lincoln, Allen Lipson, Sandra K. Loo, Joseph Loscalzo, Richard L. Maas, Ellen F. Macnamara, Calum A. MacRae, Valerie V. Maduro, Marta M. Majcherska, May Christine V. Malicdan, Laura A. Mamounas, Teri A. Manolio, Thomas C. Markello, Ronit Marom, Julian A. Martínez-Agosto, Shruti Marwaha, Thomas May, Allyn McConkie-Rosell, Colleen E. McCormack, Alexa T. McCray, Jason D. Merker, Thomas O. Metz, Matthew Might, Paolo M. Moretti, John J. Mulvihill, Jennifer L. Murphy, Donna M. Muzny, Michele E. Nehrebecky, Stan F. Nelson, J. Scott Newberry, John H. Newman, Sarah K. Nicholas, Donna Novacic, Jordan S. Orange, J. Carl Pallais, Christina GS. Palmer, Jeanette C. Papp, Neil H. Parker, Loren DM. Pena, John A. Phillips III, Jennifer E. Posey, John H. Postlethwait, Lorraine Potocki, Barbara N. Pusey, Chloe M. Reuter, Amy K. Robertson, Lance H. Rodan, Jill A. Rosenfeld, Jacinda B. Sampson, Susan L. Samson, Kelly Schoch, Molly C. Schroeder, Daryl A. Scott, Prashant Sharma, Vandana Shashi, Edwin K. Silverman, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Kevin S. Smith, Ariane G. Soldatos, Rebecca C. Spillmann, Kimberly Splinter, Joan M. Stoler, Nicholas Stong, Jennifer A. Sullivan, David A. Sweetser, Cynthia J. Tifft, Camilo Toro, Alyssa A. Tran, Tiina K. Urv, Zaheer M. Valivullah, Eric Vilain, Tiphanie P. Vogel, Daryl M. Waggott, Colleen E. Wahl, Nicole M. Walley, Chris A. Walsh, Michael F. Wangler, Patricia A. Ward, Katrina M. Waters, Bobbie-Jo M. Webb-Robertson, Monte Westerfield, Matthew T. Wheeler, Anastasia L. Wise, Lynne A. Wolfe, Elizabeth A. Worthey, Shinya Yamamoto, Yaping Yang, Guoyun Yu, Diane B. Zastrow, Chunli Zhao, Allison Zheng.


Research reported in this manuscript was supported by the NIH Common Fund, through the Office of Strategic Coordination/Office of the NIH Director under Award Numbers U01HG007672 (Shashi V and Goldstein DB) and U01HG007703 (Palmer C). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Allyn McConkie-Rosell, Stephen R. Hooper, Loren D. M. Pena, Kelly Schoch, Rebecca C. Spillmann, Yong-Hui Jiang, Heidi Cope, Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Christina Palmer, and Vandana Shashi declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human Studies and Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The data gathered for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the National Human Genome Research Institute (15-HG-0130) and Duke University Medical Center (Pro00056651). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Studies

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Consent for Publication

Not applicable

Supplementary material

10897_2017_193_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)


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Copyright information

© National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allyn McConkie-Rosell
    • 1
  • Stephen R. Hooper
    • 2
  • Loren D. M. Pena
    • 1
  • Kelly Schoch
    • 1
  • Rebecca C. Spillmann
    • 1
  • Yong-Hui Jiang
    • 1
  • Heidi Cope
    • 1
  • Undiagnosed Diseases Network
    • 3
  • Christina Palmer
    • 4
  • Vandana Shashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Medical Genetics, Department of PediatricsDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Allied Health SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Undiagnosed Diseases NetworkNIH Common FundBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Human Genetics, and Institute for Society and GeneticsUCLALos AngelesUSA

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