The mode of training and work of the military personnel is different from that of civil servants and may affect their relationships with their intimate partners. This study assessed and compared the prevalence and correlates of self-reported Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetration against female partners by male military personnel and civil servants in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A cross sectional survey of 1240 respondents, comprising 631 military personnel and 609 civilians, was conducted using a multistage sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the respondents’ characteristics and the different types of IPV perpetrated by them. Chi square test was used to compare the proportions of the different types of IPV perpetration and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of IPV perpetration in the two study groups. Military personnel reported significantly more IPV such as physical abuse, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors than the civil servants. Childhood exposure to inter-parental IPV and history of physical fight with another woman significantly increased the odds of perpetration of each type and any form of IPV in the two populations after controlling for other variables. Military personnel were significantly more likely to perpetrate any form of IPV than the civil servants. IPV was prevalent in both groups but was more among the military personnel. There is a need for multidisciplinary interventions such as psycho-education and conflict management skills to address violence against female intimate partners especially among the military population in Nigeria.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adelman, M. (2003). The military, militarism, and the militarization of domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 9(9), 1118–1152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801203255292.
Anderson, A. S., & Lo, C. C. (2011). Intimate partner violence within law enforcement families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(6), 1176–1193. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510368156.
Antai, D. (2011a). Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria. BMC Public Health, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-511.
Antai, D. (2011b). Traumatic physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women: What is the role of community-level factors? BMC Women’s Health, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-11-56.
Antai, D., & Antai, J. B. (2008). Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria. Rural and Remote Health, 8(3), 996.
Babu, B. V., & Kusuma, Y. S. (2016). Violence against women and girls in the sustainable development goals. Health Promotion Perspectives, 7(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.15171/hpp.2017.01.
Balogun, M. O., & John-Akinola, Y. O. (2015). A qualitative study of intimate partner violence among women in Nigeria. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2410–2427. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514553112.
Becker, P., & Bachman, R. (2020). Initimate partner violence in the military: An investigation of reporting crimes to law enforcement officials. Journal of Family Violence, 35, 315–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9072-4.
Bowen, G., Jensen, T., & Williams, B. (2017). Prevention of family maltreatment in the U.S. Air Force: A systematic review of research on active-duty military personnel. Journal of Family Social Work, 20(1), 52–80.
Bradley, C. (2007). Veteran status and marital aggression: Does militaryservice make a difference? Journal of Family Violence, 22(4), 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/10522158.2016.1259137.
Brannen, S. J., Bradshaw, R. D., Hamlin, E. R., Fogarty, J. P., & Colligan, T. W. (1999). Spouse abuse: Physician guidelines to identification, diagnosis, and Management in the Uniformed Services. Military Medicine, 164(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/164.1.30.
Burelomova, A., Gulina, M., & Tikhomandritskaya, O. (2018). Intimate partner violence: An overview of the existing theories, conceptual frame works and definitions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11(3), 128–144.
Campbell, J. C., Jones, A. S., Dienemann, J., Kub, J., Schollenberger, J., O’Campo, P., et al. (2002). Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(10), 1157–1163. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.162.10.1157.
Chimah, C. U., Adogu, P. O. U., Odeyemi, K., & Ilika, A. L. (2015). Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Women’s Health, 7, 287–295. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S79176.
Cronin, C. (1995). Adolescent reports of parental spousal violence in military and civilian families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10(1), 117–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626095010001008.
Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Edwards, V. J., & Williamson, D. F. (2002). Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: Implications for health and social services. Violence and Victims, 17(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.126.96.36.199635.
Ellsberg, M., Jansen, H. A., Heise, L., Watts, C. H., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2008). Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: An observational study. The Lancet, 371(9619), 1165–1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60522-X.
Essien, E. J., Ogungbade, G. O., Kamiru, H. N., Ekong, E., Ward, D., & Holmes, L. (2006). Emerging Sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of intention to use condom in human immunodeficiency virus intervention among uniformed services personnel. Military Medicine, 171(10), 1027–1034. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed.171.10.1027.
Essien, E. J., Ogungbade, G. O., Ward, D., Ekong, E., Ross, M. W., Meshack, A., & Holmes, L. (2007). Influence of educational status and other variables on human immunodeficiency virus risk perception among military personnel: A large cohort finding. Military Medicine, 172(11), 1177–1181. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed.172.11.1177.
Fatusi, A., & Alatise, O. (2007). Intimate partner violence in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Women’s experiences and men’s perspectives. Gender and Behaviour, 4(2), 764–781. https://doi.org/10.4314/gab.v4i2.23356.
Fawole, O. I., Aderonmu, A. L., & Fawole, A. O. (2005). Intimate partner abuse: Wife beating among civil servants in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 9(2), 54–64. https://doi.org/10.2307/3583462.
Fawole, O. I., Salawu, T., & Olarinmoye, E. (2010). Intimate partner violence: Prevalence and perceptions of married men in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 30(4), 349–364. https://doi.org/10.2190/IQ.30.4.f.
Fielding, A., Levy, P. S., & Lemeshow, S. (1993). Sampling of populations: Methods and applications. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society), 156(1), 134. https://doi.org/10.2307/2982878.
Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. H. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women ’ s health and domestic initial results on prevalence. WHO, 368(9543), 1260–1269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69523-8.
García-Morenoa, C., & Amina, A. (2016). The sustainable development goals, violence and women’s and children’s health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(5), 396–397. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.172205.
Griffin, W. A., & Morgan, A. R. (1988). Conflict in Maritally distressed military couples. American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(1), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926188808250703.
Gupta, J., Silverman, J. G., Hemenway, D., Acevedo-Garcia, D., Stein, D. J., & Williams, D. R. (2008). Physical violence against intimate partners and related exposures to violence among south African men. CMAJ, 179(6), 535–541. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.071655.
Heavey, S. C., Homish, D. L., Goodell, E. A., & Homish, G. G. (2017). U.S. reserve soldiers’ combat exposure and intimate partner violence: Not more common but it is more violent. Stress and Health, 33(5), 617–623. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2748.
Heyman, R. E., & Neidig, P. H. (1999). A comparison of spousal aggression prevalence rates in U.S. Army and civilian representative samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 239–242. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.2.239.
Holmes, L., Ogungbade, G., Ward, D. D., Ross, M. W., Ekong, E., & Essien, E. J. (2008). Epidemiologic and behavioral characterization of knowledge of condom use and modeling among military personnel. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 12(2), 32–44. https://doi.org/10.2307/25470648.
Hoyt, T., Wray, A. M., & Rielage, J. K. (2014). Preliminary investigation of the roles of military background and posttraumatic stress symptoms in frequency and recidivism of intimate partner violence perpetration among court-referred men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(6), 1094–1110. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513506058.
Ilika, A. L. (2005). Women’s perception of partner violence in a rural Igbo community. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 9(3), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.2307/3583414.
Jones, A. D. (2012). Intimate partner violence in military couples: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(2), 147–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.12.002.
Kernic, M. A., Holt, V. L., Wolf, M. E., McKnight, B., Huebner, C. E., & Rivara, F. P. (2002). Academic and school health issues among children exposed to maternal intimate partner abuse. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156(6), 549–555. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.156.6.549.
Kernic, M. A., Wolf, M. E., Holt, V. L., McKnight, B., Huebner, C. E., & Rivara, F. P. (2003). Behavioral problems among children whose mothers are abused by an intimate partner. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(11), 1231–1246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2002.12.001.
Kimberg, L. S. (2008). Addressing intimate partner violence with male patients: A review and introduction of pilot guidelines. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(12), 2071–2078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0755-1.
Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). The world report on violence and health. Lancet, 360(9339), 1083–1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11133-0.
McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Newby, J. H., Liu, X., Fullerton, C. S., Norwood, A. E., & Osuch, E. A. (2003). Domestic violence and deployment in US Army soldiers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(1), 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200301000-00002.
McCarroll, J. E., Fan, Z. Z., & Bell, N. S. (2009). Alcohol use in nonmutual and mutual domestic violence in the U.S. Army: 1998-2004. Violence and Victims, 24(3), 364–379. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.24.3.364.
Miles, S. H. (2003). HIV in insurgency forces in sub-Saharan Africa - a personal view of policies. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 14, 174–178. https://doi.org/10.1258/095646203762869179.
Newby, J. H., Ursano, R. J., McCarroll, J. E., Liu, X., Fullerton, C. S., & Norwood, A. E. (2005). Postdeployment domestic violence by U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine, 170(8), 643–647. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed.170.8.643.
Nojomi, M., Agaee, S., & Eslami, S. (2007). Domestic violence against women attending gynecologic outpatient clinics. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 10(3), 309–315.
Nwabunike, C., & Tenkorang, E. Y. (2017). Domestic and marital violence among three ethnic groups in Nigeria. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(18), 2751–2776. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515596147.
Nwokoji, U. A., & Ajuwon, A. J. (2004). Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel. BMC Public Health, 4, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-4-24.
Olayanju, L., Naguib, R. N. G., Nguyen, Q. T., Bali, R. K., & Vung, N. D. (2013). Combating intimate partner violence in Africa: Opportunities and challenges in five African countries. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 101–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.003.
Rentz, E. D., Martin, S. L., Gibbs, D. A., Clinton-Sherrod, M., Hardison, J., & Marshall, S. W. (2006). Family violence in the military: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 7, 93–108. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838005285916.
Rodrigues, A. E., Funderburk, J. S., Keating, N. L., & Maisto, S. A. (2015). A methodological review of intimate partner violence in the military: Where do we go from Here? Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 6(3), 231–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838014526066.
Seo, J. Y., Lloyd, D. A., & Nam, S. I. (2014). Work-family conflict and intimate partner violence in the South Korean military: Mediating role of aggression and buffering effect of a counseling resource. Journal of Family Violence, 29(8), 839–847. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-014-9641-2.
Sgambelluri, R. (2000). Police Culture , Police Training , and Police Administration: Their Impact on Violence in Police Families. Domestic Violence by Police Officers.
Smith-Marek, E. N., Cafferky, B., Dominguez, M. M., Spencer, C., Van, K., Stith, S. M., & Oliver, M. A. (2016). Military/civilian risk markers for physical intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis. Violence and Victims, 31(5), 787–818. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-15-00032.
Sorenson, S. (2017). Guns in intimate partner violence: Comparing incidents by type of weapon. Journal of Women’s Health, 26(3), 249–258. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.5832.
Speizer, I. S. (2010). Intimate partner violence attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(7), 1224–1241. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260509340550.
Stamm, S. (2009). Intimate partner violence in the miliatry: Securing our country, starting with the home. Family Court Review, 47(2), 321–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-1617.2009.01257.x.
Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Merrill, L. L., Rabenhorst, M. M., Crouch, J. L., & Milner, J. S. (2011). Gender and military contextual risk factors for intimate partner aggression. Military Psychology, 23, 639–658.
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251396017003001.
Thompson, M. P., Basile, K. C., Hertz, M. F., & Sitterle, D. (2006). Measuring intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: A compendium of assessment tools. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 1(1), 1689–1699.
Trevillion, K., Williamson, E., Thandi, G., Borschmann, R., Oram, S., & Howard, L. (2015). A systematic review of mental disorders and perpetration of domestic violence among miliatry populations. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(9), 1329–1346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-015-1084-4.
WHO (2009). Violence , Injuries and Disability Biennial Report 2008–2009. WHO Library Catalog, 1, 1–36.
WHO (2012). Global and regional estimates of violence against women WHO. WHO Press
Wood, S. L., & Sommers, M. S. (2011). Consequences of intimate partner violence on child witnesses: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24(4), 223–236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.2011.00302.x.
Zamorski, M. A., & Wiens-Kinkaid, M. E. (2013). Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel. BMC Public Health, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1019.
Zeoli, A., Malinski, R., & Turchan, B. (2016). Risks and targeted interventions: Firearms in Initmate partner violence. Epidemiologic Reviews, 38(1), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxv007.
Data analysis and writing of this paper was supported by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in Nigeria (MEPIN) project funded by Fogarty International Center, the Office of AIDS Research, and the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the Office of the U. S. Global AIDS Coordinator under Award Number R24TW008878. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding organizations.
Part of this research findings with abstract number 1676 was presented at the 20th World Congress of International Epidemiological Association held in Anchorage, Alaska in August, 2014.
Conflict of Interest
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Adejimi, A.A., Sekoni, O.O. & Fawole, O.I. A Comparative Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Male Military Personnel and Civil Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Fam Viol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-020-00235-4
- Intimate partner violence
- Military personnel
- Civil servants