The central role of family within the process of juvenile reentry from a term of incarceration has been well documented by researchers and practitioners alike. However, family violence among previously incarcerated youth remains alarmingly high across the United States. Drawing from differential coercion and social support theory, we examine how family dynamics may simultaneously promote and/or inhibit family violence perpetration among youth undergoing the process of reentry. Four waves of panel data from the male-only youth subsample of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative are analyzed using a series of dynamic panel data models. Findings demonstrate that both pre- and post-release levels of family conflict are significantly associated with increased family violence during reintegration. Mechanisms of family support, however, are not associated with post-release family violence. Results from this study highlight the salience of family conflict in understanding family violence perpetration among recently released juveniles and their families.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
A subsample that included female youth was initially collected by SVORI researchers, but was not released due to the small sample size and concerns over anonymity.
Allison, P. (2015). Don’t put lagged dependent variables in mixed models. Statistical horizons. Available at: https://statisticalhorizons.com/lagged-dependent-variables. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Allison, P. D., Williams, R., & Moral-Benito, E. (2017). Maximum likelihood for cross-lagged panel models with fixed effects. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 3, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023117710578.
Apel, R., & Sweeten, G. (2010). The impact of incarceration on employment during the transition to adulthood. Social Problems, 57, 448–479. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2010.57.3.448.
Bahr, S. T., Harris, L., Fisher, J. K., & Armstrong, A. H. (2010). Successful reentry: What differentiates successful and unsuccessful parolees? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54, 667–692. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X09342435.
Barnert, E. S., Dubovitz, R., Nelson, B. B., Coker, T. R., Biely, C., Li, N., & Chung, P. J. (2017). How does incarcerating young people affect their adult health outcomes? Pediatrics, 139, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2624.
Bouffard, J. A., & Bergsetg, K. J. (2008). The impact of reentry services on juvenile offenders’ recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 295–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204007313384.
Braman, D., & Wood, J. (2003). From one generation to the next: How criminal sanctions are reshaping family life in urban America. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed: The impact of incarceration and reentry on children, families, and communities (pp. 157–188). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Bullis, M., Yovanoff, P., Mueller, G., & Havel, E. (2002). Life on the “Outs” – Examination of the facility-to-community transition of incarcerated youth. Exceptional Children, 69, 7–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290206900101.
Calley, N. G. (2012). Juvenile offender recidivism: An examination of risk factors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21, 257–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2012.668266.
Colvin, M. (2007). Applying differential coercion and social support theory to prison organizations: The case of the penitentiary of New Mexico. The Prison Journal, 87, 367–387. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885507304774.
Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander Ven, T. (2002). Coercion, social support, and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17459125.2002.tb00948.x.
Cottle, C. C., Lee, R. J., & Heilbrun, K. (2001). The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 367–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854801028003005.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334.
Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the academy of criminal justice sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11, 527–559. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418829400092421.
Dmitrieva, J., Monahan, K. C., Cauffman, E., & Steinberg, L. (2012). Arrested development: The effects of incarceration on the development of psychosocial maturity. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 1073–1090. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000545.
Gelles, R. J. (1985). Family violence. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 347–367. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.11.080185.002023.
Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Smith, L. A., Choenwald, S. K., & Hanley, J. H. (1993). Family preservation using multisystemic treatment: Long-term follow-up to a clinical trial with serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2, 283–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01321226.
Henggeler, S. W., Cunningham, P. B., Pickrel, S. G., Schoenwald, S. K., & Brondino, M. J. (1996). Multisystemic therapy: An effective violence prevention approach for serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0005.
Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Millen, D. H., & Detullio, D. (2018). Chronic juvenile offenders: Exploring risk factor models of recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice (Online first) at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204018770517.
Kim, J., & Mueller, C. W. (1978). Factor analysis: Statistical methods and practical issues. New York: Sage.
Lambie, I., & Randell, I. (2013). The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 448–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.007.
Lattimore, P. K., & Steffey, D. M. (2009). The multi-site evaluation of SVORI: Methodology and analytic approach. U.S. Department of Justice. Document 230424.
Lattimore, P. K., & Visher, C. A. (2009). Multi-site evaluation of SVORI: Summary and synthesis. Raleigh: RTI International. Document 230421.
Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., McCart, M. R., Chapman, J. E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 89–102. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014352.
Martinez, D. J. (2006). Informal helping mechanisms: Conceptual issues in family support of reentry of former prisoners. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44, 23–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J076v44n01_02.
Martinez, D. J., & Abrams, L. S. (2013). Informal social support among returning youth offenders: A metasynthesis of the literature. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57, 169–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X11428203.
Monahan, K. C., Goldweber, A., & Cauffman, E. (2011). The effects of visitation on incarcerated juvenile offenders: How contact with the outside impacts adjustment on the inside. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10979-010-9220-x.
Moore, T., McArthur, M., & Saunders, V. (2013). Young people talk about transitioning from youth detention to the community: Making good. Australian Social Work, 66, 328–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2012.752020.
Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2018). A developmental perspective on reentry: Understanding the causes and consequences of family conflict and peer delinquency during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47, 275–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0794-1.
Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2019a). Do we have it all wrong? The protective roles of peers and criminogenic risks from family during prison reentry. Crime & Delinquency, 65, 681–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128718800286.
Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2019b). The criminogenic influence of family on substance use during reentry: A life-course perspective on between individual differences and within individual changes. Justice Quarterly, 36, 841–869. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2018.1439518.
Mulvey, E. P. (2011). Highlights from the pathways to desistance: A longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders. Washington D.C: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/230971.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
O’Brien, R. M. (2007). A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Quality & Quantity, 41, 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2017). Literature review: A product of the model programs guide, Juvenile reentry. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Aftercare.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018a). Juveniles in corrections: Demographics. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08203.asp?qaDate=2015&text=no&maplik=link3. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018b). Statistical briefing book. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08201.asp?qaDate=2016. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018c). Family engagement in juvenile justice. Washing D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Family-Engagement-in-Juvenile-Justice.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Panuccio, E. A., Christian, J., Martinez, D. J., & Sulivan, M. L. (2012). Social support, motivation, and the process of juvenile reentry: An exploratory analysis of desistance. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 51, 135–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2011.618527.
Perkins-Dock, R. E. (2001). Family interventions with incarcerated youth: A review of the literature. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 606–625. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X01455006.
Sawyer, A. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2011). Effects of multisystemic therapy through midlife: A 21.9-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 643–652. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024862.
Sedlak, A. J., & Bruce, C. (2010). Youth’s characteristics and backgrounds: Findings from the survey of youth in residential placement. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. D.C.: Washington Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227730.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. (2006). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Spaccarelli, S., Coatsworth, J. D., & Bowden, B. S. (1995). Exposure to serious family violence among incarcerated boys: Its association with violent offending and potential mediating variables. Violence and Victims, 10, 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.10.3.163.
Steinberg, L., Chung, H. L., & Little, M. (2004). Reentry of young offenders from the justice system: A developmental perspective. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204003260045.
Sullivan, M. L. (2004). Youth perspectives on the experience of reentry. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 56–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204003260047.
Visher, C. A., Lattimore, P. M., Barrick, K., & Tuller, S. (2017). Evaluating the long-term effects of prisoner reentry services on recidivism: What types of services matter? Justice Quarterly, 34, 136–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2015.1115539.
Western, B., Braga, A. A., Davis, J., & Sirois, C. (2015). Stress and hardship after prison. American Journal of Sociology, 120, 1512–1547. https://doi.org/10.1086/681301.
Williams, R., Allison, P. D., & Moral-Benito, E. (2018). Linear dynamic panel-data estimation using maximum likelihood and structural equation modeling. In Forthcoming in The Stata Journal Available at: https://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/dynamic/SJPaper.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.
This research was supported in part by the Center for Family and Demographic Research, Bowling Green State University, which has core funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (P2CHD050959).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mowen, T.J., Fisher, B.W. Youth Reentry from Prison and Family Violence Perpetration: the Salience of Family Dynamics. J Fam Viol (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00098-4
- Family violence
- Youth reentry
- Family conflict
- Family support