Youth Reentry from Prison and Family Violence Perpetration: the Salience of Family Dynamics

Abstract

The central role of family within the process of juvenile reentry from a term of incarceration has been well documented by researchers and practitioners alike. However, family violence among previously incarcerated youth remains alarmingly high across the United States. Drawing from differential coercion and social support theory, we examine how family dynamics may simultaneously promote and/or inhibit family violence perpetration among youth undergoing the process of reentry. Four waves of panel data from the male-only youth subsample of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative are analyzed using a series of dynamic panel data models. Findings demonstrate that both pre- and post-release levels of family conflict are significantly associated with increased family violence during reintegration. Mechanisms of family support, however, are not associated with post-release family violence. Results from this study highlight the salience of family conflict in understanding family violence perpetration among recently released juveniles and their families.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    A subsample that included female youth was initially collected by SVORI researchers, but was not released due to the small sample size and concerns over anonymity.

References

  1. Allison, P. (2015). Don’t put lagged dependent variables in mixed models. Statistical horizons. Available at: https://statisticalhorizons.com/lagged-dependent-variables. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  2. Allison, P. D., Williams, R., & Moral-Benito, E. (2017). Maximum likelihood for cross-lagged panel models with fixed effects. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 3, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023117710578.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Apel, R., & Sweeten, G. (2010). The impact of incarceration on employment during the transition to adulthood. Social Problems, 57, 448–479. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2010.57.3.448.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bahr, S. T., Harris, L., Fisher, J. K., & Armstrong, A. H. (2010). Successful reentry: What differentiates successful and unsuccessful parolees? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54, 667–692. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X09342435.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Barnert, E. S., Dubovitz, R., Nelson, B. B., Coker, T. R., Biely, C., Li, N., & Chung, P. J. (2017). How does incarcerating young people affect their adult health outcomes? Pediatrics, 139, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2624.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bouffard, J. A., & Bergsetg, K. J. (2008). The impact of reentry services on juvenile offenders’ recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 295–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204007313384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Braman, D., & Wood, J. (2003). From one generation to the next: How criminal sanctions are reshaping family life in urban America. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed: The impact of incarceration and reentry on children, families, and communities (pp. 157–188). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bullis, M., Yovanoff, P., Mueller, G., & Havel, E. (2002). Life on the “Outs” – Examination of the facility-to-community transition of incarcerated youth. Exceptional Children, 69, 7–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290206900101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Calley, N. G. (2012). Juvenile offender recidivism: An examination of risk factors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21, 257–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2012.668266.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Colvin, M. (2007). Applying differential coercion and social support theory to prison organizations: The case of the penitentiary of New Mexico. The Prison Journal, 87, 367–387. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885507304774.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander Ven, T. (2002). Coercion, social support, and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17459125.2002.tb00948.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cottle, C. C., Lee, R. J., & Heilbrun, K. (2001). The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 367–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854801028003005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the academy of criminal justice sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11, 527–559. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418829400092421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dmitrieva, J., Monahan, K. C., Cauffman, E., & Steinberg, L. (2012). Arrested development: The effects of incarceration on the development of psychosocial maturity. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 1073–1090. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000545.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Gelles, R. J. (1985). Family violence. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 347–367. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.11.080185.002023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Smith, L. A., Choenwald, S. K., & Hanley, J. H. (1993). Family preservation using multisystemic treatment: Long-term follow-up to a clinical trial with serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2, 283–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01321226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Henggeler, S. W., Cunningham, P. B., Pickrel, S. G., Schoenwald, S. K., & Brondino, M. J. (1996). Multisystemic therapy: An effective violence prevention approach for serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0005.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Millen, D. H., & Detullio, D. (2018). Chronic juvenile offenders: Exploring risk factor models of recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice (Online first) at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204018770517.

  20. Kim, J., & Mueller, C. W. (1978). Factor analysis: Statistical methods and practical issues. New York: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lambie, I., & Randell, I. (2013). The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 448–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Lattimore, P. K., & Steffey, D. M. (2009). The multi-site evaluation of SVORI: Methodology and analytic approach. U.S. Department of Justice. Document 230424.

  23. Lattimore, P. K., & Visher, C. A. (2009). Multi-site evaluation of SVORI: Summary and synthesis. Raleigh: RTI International. Document 230421.

  24. Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., McCart, M. R., Chapman, J. E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 89–102. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014352.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Martinez, D. J. (2006). Informal helping mechanisms: Conceptual issues in family support of reentry of former prisoners. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44, 23–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J076v44n01_02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Martinez, D. J., & Abrams, L. S. (2013). Informal social support among returning youth offenders: A metasynthesis of the literature. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57, 169–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X11428203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Monahan, K. C., Goldweber, A., & Cauffman, E. (2011). The effects of visitation on incarcerated juvenile offenders: How contact with the outside impacts adjustment on the inside. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10979-010-9220-x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Moore, T., McArthur, M., & Saunders, V. (2013). Young people talk about transitioning from youth detention to the community: Making good. Australian Social Work, 66, 328–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2012.752020.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2018). A developmental perspective on reentry: Understanding the causes and consequences of family conflict and peer delinquency during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47, 275–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0794-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2019a). Do we have it all wrong? The protective roles of peers and criminogenic risks from family during prison reentry. Crime & Delinquency, 65, 681–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128718800286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Mowen, T. J., & Boman, J. H., IV. (2019b). The criminogenic influence of family on substance use during reentry: A life-course perspective on between individual differences and within individual changes. Justice Quarterly, 36, 841–869. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2018.1439518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Mulvey, E. P. (2011). Highlights from the pathways to desistance: A longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders. Washington D.C: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/230971.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  33. O’Brien, R. M. (2007). A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Quality & Quantity, 41, 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2017). Literature review: A product of the model programs guide, Juvenile reentry. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Aftercare.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  35. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018a). Juveniles in corrections: Demographics. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08203.asp?qaDate=2015&text=no&maplik=link3. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  36. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018b). Statistical briefing book. Washington D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08201.asp?qaDate=2016. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  37. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2018c). Family engagement in juvenile justice. Washing D.C. Available at: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Family-Engagement-in-Juvenile-Justice.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  38. Panuccio, E. A., Christian, J., Martinez, D. J., & Sulivan, M. L. (2012). Social support, motivation, and the process of juvenile reentry: An exploratory analysis of desistance. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 51, 135–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2011.618527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Perkins-Dock, R. E. (2001). Family interventions with incarcerated youth: A review of the literature. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 606–625. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X01455006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Sawyer, A. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2011). Effects of multisystemic therapy through midlife: A 21.9-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 643–652. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024862.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Sedlak, A. J., & Bruce, C. (2010). Youth’s characteristics and backgrounds: Findings from the survey of youth in residential placement. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. D.C.: Washington Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227730.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

  42. Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. (2006). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Spaccarelli, S., Coatsworth, J. D., & Bowden, B. S. (1995). Exposure to serious family violence among incarcerated boys: Its association with violent offending and potential mediating variables. Violence and Victims, 10, 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.10.3.163.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Steinberg, L., Chung, H. L., & Little, M. (2004). Reentry of young offenders from the justice system: A developmental perspective. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204003260045.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Sullivan, M. L. (2004). Youth perspectives on the experience of reentry. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 56–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204003260047.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Visher, C. A., Lattimore, P. M., Barrick, K., & Tuller, S. (2017). Evaluating the long-term effects of prisoner reentry services on recidivism: What types of services matter? Justice Quarterly, 34, 136–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2015.1115539.

  47. Western, B., Braga, A. A., Davis, J., & Sirois, C. (2015). Stress and hardship after prison. American Journal of Sociology, 120, 1512–1547. https://doi.org/10.1086/681301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Williams, R., Allison, P. D., & Moral-Benito, E. (2018). Linear dynamic panel-data estimation using maximum likelihood and structural equation modeling. In Forthcoming in The Stata Journal Available at: https://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/dynamic/SJPaper.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the Center for Family and Demographic Research, Bowling Green State University, which has core funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (P2CHD050959).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas J. Mowen.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mowen, T.J., Fisher, B.W. Youth Reentry from Prison and Family Violence Perpetration: the Salience of Family Dynamics. J Fam Viol (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00098-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Family violence
  • Youth reentry
  • Family conflict
  • Family support
  • Incarceration