Help Seeking Experiences of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in Canada: the Role of Gender, Violence Severity, and Social Belonging

Abstract

Using data from the 2009 Canadian General Social Survey-Victimization main file, this study assessed the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victims’ socio-demographic characteristics, violence characteristics, sense of social belonging, and help seeking behaviors. In a nationally representative study, we conducted hierarchical binary logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between IPV victims’ (n = 900; 385 males and 515 females) sense of social belonging and their engagement with seeking help from informal (family members, friends/neighbors, co-workers) and formal (counsellor/psychologist, doctor/nurse, lawyer, police) sources of support after controlling for victim socio-demographic characteristics and severity of violence experienced. We also sought to assess whether male and female victims of IPV differed in their solicitation of help from both informal sources and formal service providers. As hypothesized, males were significantly less likely than females to seek help from all sources. In partial support of our hypotheses, social belonging was significantly associated with an increased probability of seeking support from friends or neighbors in the regression analysis; however it was not associated with seeking help from any other source. Implications suggest that facilitating strategies for bringing together community members in every day contexts (not solely in the aftermath of violence) may be salient to enhancing survivors’ sense of belonging and increasing the likelihood that they will solicit help if needed. Findings also suggest the need for further gender based analysis of the help seeking experiences of male and female survivors to address potential gender specific barriers to help seeking.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    In recognition of the different terminology individuals who have experienced violence may ascribe to their experiences, we use the terms “victim” and “survivor” interchangeably.

  2. 2.

    Section 25 of the Constitution Act of 1982 in Canada defines Aboriginal persons as those of Indian, Inuit, or Metis descent (Sanderson 2017). Although “Aboriginal” is the term most commonly used in Canada to refer to Indigenous peoples, this may not reflect the terms used in other countries and/or the way individuals choose to self-identify.

  3. 3.

    The Employment Equity Act defines visible minority persons as “persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour” (Statistics Canada 2015, para 1). Although “visible minority” is the term most commonly used in Canada to refer to people who are not white, this terminology may not reflect the terms commonly used in other countries and/or the manner in which individuals may choose to self-identify

  4. 4.

    The 2009 General Social Survey assessed mental or physical limitations with four items (each assessed separately): Are your daily activities at home, work, school or any other area limited by… (1) a physical condition; (2) a psychological, emotional, or mental health condition (3); learning difficulties; or (4) any other health condition? Items response options were no, sometimes, often or always. Individuals experiencing any of the four indicators at a level of sometimes or higher were coded as having a physical or mental limitation in the present study.

  5. 5.

    $30,000 was selected as the dichotomous income cut-off as this is approximately the annual living wage in Canada (with geographic variations) for a full time, 40-h a week worker earning an hourly living wage of $15 per hour (Living Wage Canada 2013).

  6. 6.

    Regression analyses were not conducted for the variables “a priest, rabbi, imam, elder, or another spiritual advisor”, “crisis center or crisis line” and “community or family center “due to failure to meet Statistics Canada minimum cell count for vetting for multiple variables in the analysis.

References

  1. Adams, A. E., Bybee, D., Tolman, R. M., Sullivan, C. M., & Kennedy, A. C. (2013a). Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83(4), 600–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajop.12053.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Adams, A. E., Greeson, M. R., Kennedy, A. C., & Tolman, R. (2013b). The effects of adolescent intimate partner violence on women’s educational attainment and earnings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(17), 3283–3300. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513496895.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ajala, E. M. (2008). Impact of domestic violence on the workplace and workers’ productivity in selected industries in Nigeria. Anthropoologist, 10(4), 257–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2008.11891059.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson, M. A., Gillig, P. M., Sitaker, M., McCloskey, K., Malloy, K., & Grigsby, N. (2003). “Why doesn’t she just leave?” a descriptive study of victim reported impediments to her safety. Journal of Family Violence, 18(3), 151–155. https://doi.org/10.1023/A.1023564404773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ando, S., Nishida, A., Usami, S., Koike, S., Yamasaki, S., Kanata, S., Fujikawa, S., et al. (2018). Help-seeking intention for depression in early adolescents: Associated factors and sex differences. Journal of Affective Disorders, 238, 359–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.077.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ansara, D., & Hindin, M. (2010). Formal and informal help-seeking associated with women’s and men’s experiences of intimate partner violence in Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 70(7), 1011–1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Arnacky, S., & Valliancourt, T. (2014). Sex differences in response to victimization by an intimate partner: More stigmatization and less-help seeking among males. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 23(7), 705–724. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2014.933465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Barrera, M. (1986). Distinction between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 413–445. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00922627.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Barrett, B., & St. Pierre, M. (2011). Variations in women’s help seeking in response to intimate partner violence: Findings from a Canadian population based study. Violence Against Women, 17(1), 47–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801210394273.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Beaulaurier, R. L., Seff, L. R., Newmann, F. L., & Dunlop, B. (2007). External barriers to help seeking for older women who experience intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 22(8), 747–755. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9122-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Beeble, M. L., Bybee, D., Sullivan, C. M., & Adams, A. E. (2009). Main, mediating, and moderating effects of social support on the well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence across 2 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 718–729. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016140.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Benenson, J. F., & Koulazarian, M. (2008). Sex differences in help seeking appear in early childhood. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(2), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151007X231048.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Block, C.R. (2004). Risk factors for death or life-threatening injury for abused women in Chicago. National Institute of Justice (NCJ 199701). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/199732.pdf

  14. Bograd, M. (2016, March 11). Marginal effects vs. odds ratios. Retrieved from http://econometricsense.blogspot.com/2016/03/marginal-effects-vs-odds-ratios_11.html

  15. Bonomi, A. E., Trabert, B., Anderson, M. L., Kernic, M. A., & Holt, V. L. (2014). Intimate partner violence and neighborhood income: A longitudinal analysis. Violence Against Women, 20(1), 42–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801213520580.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Bradford, B. (2012). Policing and social identity: Procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between the police and public. University of Oxford Legal Research Paper Series, paper no. 06/2012. Retrieved from http://library.college.police.uk/docs/BRADFORD-policing-social-identity-2012.pdf

  17. Budde, S., & Schene, P. (2004). Informal social support interventions and their role in violence prevention: An agenda for future evaluation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(3), 341–355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503261157.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Cahn, M. A., Harvey, S. M., & Town, M. A. (2017). American Indian and Alaskan native men’s use of sexual health services, 2006-2010. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 49(3), 181–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cattaneo, L. B., DeLoveh, H. L. M., & Zweig, J. M. (2008). Sexual assault within intimate partner violence: Impact on help-seeking in a national sample. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 36(1/2), 137–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852350802022415.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Choi, A. W., Wong, J. Y., Lo, R. T., Chan, P. Y., Wong, J. K., Lau, C. L., & Kam, C. W. (2018). Intimate partner violence victims’ acceptance and refusal of on-site counseling in emergency departments: Predictors of help-seeking behavior explored through a 5-year medical chart review. Preventative Medicine, 108, 86–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.12.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., Morgan, C., Rusch, N., Brown, J. S. L., & Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45(01), 11–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714000129.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., Thompson, M. P., McKeown, R. E., Bethea, L., & Davis, K. E. (2002). Social support protects against the negative effects of partner violence on mental health. Journal of Women’s Health and Sex-Based Medicine, 11(5), 465–476. https://doi.org/10.1089/15246090260137644.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Constantino, R., Kim, Y., & Crane, P. A. (2005). Effects of a social support intervention on health outcomes in residents of a domestic violence shelter: A pilot study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26, 575–590. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840590959416.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Cook, P. W. (2009). Abused men: The hidden side of domestic violence (2nd ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Praegar.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Douglas, E. M., & Hines, D. A. (2011). The help seeking experiences of men who sustain intimate partner violence: An overlooked population and implications for practice. Journal of Family Violence, 26(6), 473–485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-011-9382-4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Douglas, E. M., & Hines, D. A. (2015). Health problems of partner violence victims: Comparing help-seeking men to a population based sample. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 48(2), 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.08.022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Douglas, E. M., Hines, D. A., & McCarthy, S. C. (2012). Men who sustain female-to-male intimate partner violence: Factors associated with where they seek help and how they rate those resources. Violence and Victims, 27(6), 871–894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Dunham, K., & Senn, C. Y. (2000). Minimizing negative experiences: Women’s disclosures of partner abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(3), 251–261. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626000015003002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. El-Bassel, N., Gilbert, L., Rajah, V., Foleno, A., & Frye, V. (2001). Social support among women in methadone treatment who experience partner violence isolation and male controlling behavior. Violence Against Women, 7(3), 246–274. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778010122182433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Evans, M. A., & Feder, G. S. (2014). Help-seeking amongst women survivors of domestic violence: A qualitative study of pathways towards formal and informal support. Health Expectations, 19(1), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Flanigan, A. (2011, May). Evaluation of Neighbors, Friends, and Families. Center for Research and Education on violence against women and children. London, ON. Retrieved from http://www.neighboursfriendsandfamilies.ca/sites/neighboursfriendsandfamilies.ca/files/NFF_EvaluationReport_May2011.pdf

  32. Ford-Gilboe, M., Varcoe, C., Noh, M., Wuest, J., Hammerton, J., Alhalal, E., & Burnett, C. (2015). Patterns and predictors of service use among women who have separated from an abusive partner. Journal of Family Violence, 30(4), 419–431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-015-9688-8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Fugate, M., Landis, L., Riordan, K., Naureckas, S., & Engel, B. (2005). Barriers to domestic violence help seeking: Implications for intervention. Violence Against Women, 11(3), 290–310. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801204271959.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Furher, R., & Stansfeld, S. A. (2002). How sex affects patterns of social relations and their impact on health: A comparison of one or multiple sources of support from “close persons”. Social Sciences and Medicine, 54(5), 811–825.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hagerty, B. M. K., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K. L., Bouwsema, M., & Collier, P. (1992). Sense of belonging: A vital mental-health construct. Archives of Psych Nursing, 6(3), 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9417(92)90028-H.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hines, D. A., Brown, J., & Dunning, E. (2007). Characteristics of callers to the domestic violence help-line for men. Journal of Family Violence, 22(2), 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-006-9052-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hollenshead, J. H., Dai, Y., Ragsdale, M. K., Massey, R., & Scott, R. (2006). Relationship between two types of help seeking behavior in domestic violence victims. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 271–279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-006-9021-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Howell, K. H., Thurston, I. B., Schwartz, L. W., Jamison, L. E., & Hasselle, A. (2018). Protective factors associated with resilience in women exposed to intimate partner violence. Psychology of Violence, 8(4), 438–447. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000147.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Kaukinen, C. (2002). The help-seeking of women violent crime victims: Findings from the Canadian Violence Against Women Survey. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 22(7/8), 5–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330210790085.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Lane, J. M., & Addis, M. E. (2005). Male gender role conflict and patterns of help seeking in Costa Rica and the United States. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(3), 155–168. https://doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.6.3.155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Leone, J., Lape, M., & Xu, Y. (2014). Women’s decisions to not seek formal help for partner violence: A comparison of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(10), 1850–1876. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513511701.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Levondosky, A. A., Bogat, A., Theran, S. A., Trotter, J. S., von Eye, A., & Davidson, W. S. (2004). The social networks of women experiencing domestic violence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1/2), 95–109. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000040149.58847.10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Liang, B., Goodman, L., Tummala-Narra, P., & Weintraub, S. (2005). A theoretical framework for understanding help-seeking processes among survivors of intimate partner violence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1/2), 71–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-6233-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Liddon, L., Kingerlee, R., & Barry, J. A. (2018). Gender differences in preferences for psychological treatment, coping strategies, and triggers to help seeking. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(1), 42–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12147.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Living Wage Canada. (2013). What is a living wage? Retrieved from www.livingwagecanada.ca.

  46. Machado, A., Matos, M., & Hines, D. (2016). Help-seeking and needs of male victims of intimate partner violence in Portugal. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 17(3), 255–264. https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Machado, A., Santos, A., Graham-Kevon, N., & Matos, M. (2017). Exploring the help-seeking experiences of male victims of female perpetrators of IPV. Journal of Family Violence, 32(5), 513–523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-016-9853-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Macy, R. J., Nurius, P. S., Kernic, M. A., & Holt, V. L. (2005). Battered women’s profiles associated with service help-seeking efforts: Illuminating opportunities for intervention. Social Work Research, 29(3), 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/29.3.137.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Mancini, J. A., Nelson, J. P., Bowen, G. L., & Martin, J. A. (2006). Preventing intimate partner violence: A community capacity approach. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 13(3/4), 203–227. https://doi.org/10.1300/J146v13n03_08.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Meyer, S. (2016). Still blaming the victim of intimate partner violence? Women’s narratives of victim desistance and redemption when seeking support. Theoretical Criminology, 20(1), 75–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480615585399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Moe, A. M. (2007). Silenced voices and structure survival: Battered women’s help-seeking. Violence Against Women, 13(7), 676–699. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801207302041.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Moller-Leimkuhler, A. M. (2002). Barriers to help seeking by men: A review of socio-cultural and clinical literature with particular reference to depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71(1), 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Morgan, K., Buller, A. M., Evans, M., Trevillion, K., Williamson, E., & Malpass, A. (2016). The role of sex, sexuality, and context upon help-seeking for intimate partner violence: A synthesis of data across five studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 31, 136–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Nagler, R. H., Gray, S. W., Romantan, A., Kelly, B. J., DeMichele, A., Armstrong, K., Sanford Schwartz, J., & Hornik, R. C. (2010). Differences in information seeking among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients: Results from a population based survey. Patient Education and Counselling, 81(Suppl), S54–S62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.09.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Nam, S. K., Chu, H. J., Lee, M. K., Lee, J. H., Kim, N., & Lee, S. M. (2010). A meta-analysis of gender differences in attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Journal of American College Health, 59(2), 110–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2010.483714.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Office of National Statistics. (2018, May 31). Women most at risk of experiencing partner abuse in England and Wales: Years ending March 2015-2017. Retrieved from https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/womenmostatriskofexperiencingpartnerabuseinenglandandwales/yearsendingmarch2015to2017

  57. Parry, M. M., & O’Neal, E. N. (2015). Help seeking behavior among same-sex intimate partner violence victims: An intersectional argument. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 16(1), 51–67.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Pederson, E. L., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). Male gender role conflict and willingness to seek counseling: Testing a mediation model on college-aged men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(4), 373–384. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.4.373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Petrocelli, J. V. (2003). Hierarchal multiple regression in counselling research: Common problems and possible remedies. Measurement and Evaluation in Counselling Development, 36, 9–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Raj, A., & Silverman, J. G. (2007). Domestic violence help-seeking behaviors of South Asian battered women residing in the United States. International Review of Victimology, 14(1), 143–170. https://doi.org/10.1177/026975800701400108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Sabol, W. J., Coulton, C. J., & Korbin, J. E. (2004). Building community capacity for violence prevention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(3), 322–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503261155.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Sabri, B., Stockman, J. K., Campbell, J. C., O’Brien, S., Campbell, D., Callwood, G. B., Bertrand, D., Sutton, L. W., & Hart-Hyndman, G. (2014). Factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence in intimate partner relationships among ethnically diverse black women. Violence & Victims, 29(5), 719–741. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-00018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Sanderson, S. (2017). Constitution act of 1982: Implementation of sections 35(1) and (2). Saskatoon: FSIN Office of the Senate. Retrieved from https://sencanada.ca/content/sen/committee/421/APPA/Briefs/ConstitutionAct_2017-09-19_e.pdf

  64. Statistics Canada. (2010). General Social Survey-Victimization (GSS): Detailed information for 2009 (Cycle 23). Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&Id=49195#a1

  65. Statistics Canada. (2011). General Social Survey Cycle 23: Victimization, Public use microdata file documentation and user’s guide. Catalogue no. 12M0023x. Ottawa: Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Statistics Canada. (2015, October 19). Visible minority of person. Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p3Var.pl?Function=DEC&Id=45152

  67. Swanberg, J. E., & Logan, T. K. (2005). Domestic violence and employment: A qualitative study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.10.1.3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Thompson, M. P., Kaslow, N. J., Kingree, B., Rashid, A., Puett, R., Jacobs, D., & Matthews, A. (2000). Partner violence, social support, and distress among inner-city African American women. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 127–143.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Towns, A. J., & Adams, P. J. (2016). “I didn’t know whether I was right or wrong or just bewildered”: Ambiguity, responsibility, and silencing women’s talk of men’s domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 22(4), 496–520. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215605918.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Trotter, J. L., & Allen, N. E. (2009). The good, the bad, and the ugly. Domestic violence survivors’ experiences with their informal social networks. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43, 221–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9232-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Tsui, V., Cheung, M., & Leung, P. (2010). Help-seeking among male victims of partner abuse: Men’s hard times. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(6), 769–780. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Turner, L., & McLaren, S. (2011). Social support and sense of belonging as protective factors in the rumination-depressive symptoms relation among Australian women. Women & Health, 51(2), 151–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2011.558004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. United Nations General Assembly. (2004, February 19). Resolution 58/147 Elimination of domestic violence against women. Retrieved from http://repository.un.org/bitstream/handle/11176/246742/A_RES_58_147-EN.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  74. Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., O’Malley Olson, E., & Bacon, S. (2016). Association of teen dating violence victimization with school violence and bullying among U.S. high school students. Journal of School Health, 86(8), 620–627. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12412.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Zhang, T., Hoddenbagh, J., McDonald, S., & Scrim, K. (2012). An estimation of the economic impact of spousal violence in Canada, 2009. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada Retrieved from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/rr12_7/rr12_7.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported with funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Insight Development Grant Program under Grant # 430-2013-000465 and the University of Windsor Tri-Success Grant Program under Grant # 812162. Data for this project was accessed by the researchers through the Statistics Canada Research Data Centre program. The views and opinions expressed herein are solely those of the researchers and do not necessarily reflect those of Statistics Canada.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Betty Jo Barrett.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Barrett, B.J., Peirone, A. & Cheung, C.H. Help Seeking Experiences of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in Canada: the Role of Gender, Violence Severity, and Social Belonging. J Fam Viol 35, 15–28 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00086-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Domestic violence
  • Spousal violence
  • Help-seeking
  • Social belonging