Advertisement

Is Intimate Partner Violence a Barrier to Breastfeeding? An Analysis of the 2015 Indian National Family Health Survey

  • Nicholas MethenyEmail author
  • Rob Stephenson
Original Article

Abstract

Women in India experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and low rates of adherence to World Health Organization (WHO) breastfeeding guidelines, contributing to poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, there is little evidence for how IPV might influence ability to adhere to these guidelines in India. This study examines how different forms and severity levels of IPV are associated with current infant feeding behavior throughout the first year of life in an effort to begin to fill this gap in the literature and provide information to improve infant feeding programs. Data are analyzed from the 2015 Indian National Family Health Survey. The sample comprised women who reported initiating breastfeeding in the past 12 months and who were selected for the Domestic Violence Module (n = 6812). Two outcome variables were created to measure current adherence to the WHO breastfeeding guidelines for mothers of 1) infants 6 months and younger and 2) infants 7 to 12 months. Two logistic regression models were fit to measure associations between the outcome variables and non-severe physical violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Less than one-third of women reported adhering to WHO breastfeeding guidelines. Only severe physical violence was significantly associated with lower odds of current exclusive breastfeeding among mothers of infants 0 to 6 months. This analysis advances the understanding of how IPV is associated with suboptimal breastfeeding behavior by categorizing the severity of violence and including infants through the first year of life. The results suggest it may be crucial to focus intervention efforts on mothers with younger infants if the negative health effects of early weaning are to be avoided. Additional study of IPV in mothers of older infants should focus on the temporality of violence, which may elucidate additional findings regarding IPV and breastfeeding in this population.

Keywords

India Breastfeeding Domestic violence India national family health survey 

Notes

References

  1. Ackerson, L. K., & Subramanian, S. (2008). Domestic violence and chronic malnutrition among women and children in India. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(10), 1188–1196.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Administrative divisions of India. (2018). Administrative divisions of india. Retrieved from https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Administrative_divisions_of_India.html
  3. Bailey, B. A., & Daugherty, R. A. (2007). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: Incidence and associated health behaviors in a rural population. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 11(5), 495–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergmann, J. N., & Stockman, J. K. (2015). How does intimate partner violence affect condom and oral contraceptive use in the United States?: A systematic review of the literature. Contraception, 91(6), 438–455.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Binns, C., Lee, M., & Low, W. Y. (2016). The long-term public health benefits of breastfeeding. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 28(1), 7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boopathy, G., Maitra, S., Bhaskar, S., Pratap, R., & Shanti, R. &. H. (2014). Millennium development goals: India country report 2014. (). New Delhi: Social statistics division, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. Retrieved from http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/mdg_2014%20India%20country%20report.pdf
  7. Boshara, R., Emmons, W. R., & Noeth, B. J. (2015). The demographics of wealth-how age, education and race separate thrivers from strugglers in today's economy. Essay no. 1: Race, ethnicity and wealth. Demographics of Wealth, (1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, J. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet, 359(9314), 1331–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, J., Jones, A. S., Dienemann, J., Kub, J., Schollenberger, J., O'Campo, P., . . . Wynne, C. (2002). Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(10), 1157–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cerulli, C., Chin, N., Talbot, N., & Chaudron, L. (2010). Exploring the impact of intimate partner violence on breastfeeding initiation: Does it matter? Breastfeeding Medicine, 5(5), 225–226.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charlette, S. L., Nongkynrih, B., & Gupta, S. K. (2012). Domestic violence in India: Need for public health action. Indian Journal of Public Health, 56(2), 140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaudhuri, K., & Yalonetzky, G. (2018). The state of female autonomy in India: A stochastic dominance approach. The Journal of Development Studies, 54(8), 1338–1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., Bethea, L., King, M. R., & McKeown, R. E. (2000). Physical health consequences of physical and psychological intimate partner violence. Archives of Family Medicine, 9(5), 451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Das Gupta, M., Zhenghua, J., Bohua, L., Zhenming, X., Chung, W., & Hwa-Ok, B. (2003). Why is son preference so persistent in east and south asia? A cross-country study of China, India and the Republic of Korea. The Journal of Development Studies, 40(2), 153–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Souza Mezzavilla, R., de Figueiredo Ferreira, M., Curioni, C. C., Lindsay, A. C., & Hasselmann, M. H. (2018). Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices: A systematic review of observational studies. Jornal De Pediatria, 94(3), 226–237.Google Scholar
  16. Decker, M. R., Peitzmeier, S., Olumide, A., Acharya, R., Ojengbede, O., Covarrubias, L., . . . Brahmbhatt, H. (2014). Prevalence and health impact of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence among female adolescents aged 15–19 years in vulnerable urban environments: A multi-country study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(6, Supplement),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.022, S58, S67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorius, S. F., & Firebaugh, G. (2010). Trends in global gender inequality. Social Forces, 88(5), 1941–1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duncan, D. T., Goedel, W. C., Stults, C. B., Brady, W. J., Brooks, F. A., Blakely, J. S., et al. (2018). A study of intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in a sample of geosocial-networking smartphone application users. American Journal of Men's Health. 12 (2), 292–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. (1999). The effect of household wealth on educational attainment: Evidence from 35 countries. Population and Development Review, 25(1), 85–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forster, D. A., & McLachlan, H. L. (2007). Breastfeeding initiation and birth setting practices: A review of the literature. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 52(3), 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. (2005). WHO muti-country study on women's health and domestic VIolence against women. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  22. Giashuddin, M., & Kabir, M. (2004). Duration of breast-feeding in Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 119(6), 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Grajeda, R., & Pérez-Escamilla, R. (2002). Stress during labor and delivery is associated with delayed onset of lactation among urban guatemalan women. The Journal of Nutrition, 132(10), 3055–3060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Horta, B. L., Victora, C. G., & World Health Organization. (2013). Short-term effects of breastfeeding: A systematic review on the benefits of breastfeeding on diarrhoea and pneumonia mortality.Google Scholar
  25. ICF International. (2013). DHS phase 6 questionnaire. Retrieved from http://dhsprogram.com/What-We-Do/Survey-Types/DHS-Questionnaires.cfm
  26. ICF International. (2017). Who we are. Retrieved from https://preview.dhsprogram.com/Who-We-Are/About-Us.cfm
  27. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), & Macro International. (2007). (). Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciecnes. Retrieved from https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/frind3/frind3-vol1andvol2.pdf
  28. Jayachandran, S. (2014). The roots of gender inequality in developing countries. Annual Review of Economics, 7(1), 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kendall-Tackett, K. A. (2007). Violence against women and the perinatal period: The impact of lifetime violence and abuse on pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 8(3), 344–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kimani-Murage, E. W., Madise, N. J., Fotso, J., Kyobutungi, C., Mutua, M. K., Gitau, T. M., & Yatich, N. (2011). Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 396.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koski, A. D., Stephenson, R., & Koenig, M. R. (2011). Physical violence by partner during pregnancy and use of prenatal care in rural India. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 29(3), 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kothari, C. L., Cerulli, C., Marcus, S., & Rhodes, K. V. (2009). Perinatal status and help-seeking for intimate partner violence. Journal of Women's Health, 18(10), 1639–1646.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kramer, M. S., & Kakuma, R. (2012). Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8.Google Scholar
  34. Kramer, M. S., Aboud, F., Mironova, E., Vanilovich, I., Platt, R. W., Matush, L., . . . Ducruet, T. (2008). Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: New evidence from a large randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(5), 578–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kumar, S. (2007). Domestic violence and its mental health correlates in indian women: 4–7. Year Book of Psychiatry & Applied Mental Health, 2007, 111.Google Scholar
  36. Lau, Y., & Chan, K. S. (2007). Influence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and early postpartum depressive symptoms on breastfeeding among chinese women in Hong Kong. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 52(2), e15–e20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Levendosky, A. A., Huth-Bocks, A. C., Shapiro, D. L., & Semel, M. A. (2003). The impact of domestic violence on the maternal-child relationship and preschool-age children's functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(3), 275–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu, L., Oza, S., Hogan, D., Perin, J., Rudan, I., Lawn, J. E., . . . Black, R. E. (2015). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: An updated systematic analysis. The Lancet, 385(9966), 430–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mahapatro, M., Gupta, R. N., Gupta, V., & Kundu, A. S. (2011). Domestic violence during pregnancy in India. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(15), 2973–2990.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510390948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Malhotra, R., Noheria, A., Amir, O., Ackerson, L. K., & Subramanian, S. (2008). Determinants of termination of breastfeeding within the first 2 years of life in India: Evidence from the national family health Survey-2. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 4(3), 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McKerracher, L. J., Collard, M., Altman, R. M., Sellen, D., & Nepomnaschy, P. A. (2017). Energy-related influences on variation in breastfeeding duration among indigenous maya women from Guatemala. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 162(4), 616–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Metheny, N., & Stephenson, R. (2017). Intimate partner violence and uptake of antenatal care: A scoping review of low-and middle-income country studies. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health.Google Scholar
  43. Misch, E. S., & Yount, K. M. (2014). Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding in africa. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(3), 688–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Patel, A., Badhoniya, N., Khadse, S., Senarath, U., Agho, K. E., Dibley, M. J., & South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN). (2010). Infant and young child feeding indicators and determinants of poor feeding practices in India: Secondary data analysis of national family health survey 2005–06. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 31(2), 314–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Plichta, S. B. (2004). Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences: Policy and practice implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(11), 1296–1323.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504269685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Richards, D. L., & Haglund, J. (2015). Violence against women and the law. Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Santhya, K. G., Haberland, N., Ram, F., Sinha, R. K., & Mohanty, S. K. (2007). Consent and coercion: Examining unwanted sex among married young women in India. International Family Planning Perspectives, 33(3), 124–132 Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cin20&AN=2009699559&site=ehost-live.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Semenic, S., Loiselle, C., & Gottlieb, L. (2008). Predictors of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among first-time mothers. Research in Nursing & Health, 31(5), 428–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shroff, M. R., Griffiths, P. L., Suchindran, C., Nagalla, B., Vazir, S., & Bentley, M. E. (2011). Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India? Social Science & Medicine, 73(3), 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silverman, J. G., Raj, A., Mucci, L. A., & Hathaway, J. E. (2001). Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality. Jama, 286(5), 572–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Reed, E., & Raj, A. (2006). Intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy: Association with breastfeeding behavior. Journal of Women's Health, 15(8), 934–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sipsma, H. L., Magriples, U., Divney, A., Gordon, D., Gabzdyl, E., & Kershaw, T. (2013). Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(3), 394–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. StataCorp. (2017). Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.Google Scholar
  54. Stults, C. B., Javdani, S., Greenbaum, C. A., Kapadia, F., & Halkitis, P. N. (2015). Intimate partner violence and substance use risk among young men who have sex with men: The P18 cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154, 54–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Taft, A. J., Powell, R. L., & Watson, L. F. (2015). The impact of violence against women on reproductive health and child mortality in timor-leste. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(2), 177–181.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, J. S., Risica, P. M., Geller, L., Kirtania, U., & Cabral, H. J. (2006). Duration of breastfeeding among first-time mothers in the united states: Results of a national survey. Acta Paediatrica, 95(8), 980–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. The World Bank. (2015). Maternal mortality ratio. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT
  58. The World Health Organization. (2018). Infant and young child feeding. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding
  59. Thulier, D., & Mercer, J. (2009). Variables associated with breastfeeding duration. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 38(3), 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Twells, L., & Newhook, L. A. (2010). Can exclusive breastfeeding reduce the likelihood of childhood obesity in some regions of canada? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(1), 36–39.Google Scholar
  61. UNICEF. (2013). India. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_statistics.html
  62. UNICEF. (2018). Breastfeeding: A mother’s gift, for every child. (). Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Breastfeeding_A_Mothers_Gift_for_Every_Child.pdf
  63. UNICEF India. (2016). Mother’s absoulte affection. Retrieved from http://unicef.in/AddNewPage/PreView/19
  64. Victora, C. G., Horta, B. L., De Mola, C. L., Quevedo, L., Pinheiro, R. T., Gigante, D. P.,. .. Barros, F. C. (2015). Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: A prospective birth cohort study from brazil. The Lancet Global Health, 3(4), e199-e205.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Victora, C. G., Bahl, R., Barros, A. J., França, G. V., Horton, S., Krasevec, J.,. .. Rollins, N. C. (2016). Breastfeeding in the twenty-first century: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet, 387(10017), 475–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Warshaw, C., Brashler, B., & Gil, J. (2009). Mental health consequences of intimate partner violence. In C. Mitchell & D. Anglin (Eds.), Intimate partner violence: A health- based perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. World Health Organization. (2006). Provision of effective antenatal care. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/effective_antenatal_care.pdf
  68. World Health Organization. (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner and non-partner sexual violence. (). Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85239/1/9789241564625_eng.pdf
  69. World Health Organization. (2016). Breastfeeding. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/
  70. World Health Organization. (2018). Infant and young child feeding. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding
  71. World Health Organization, & London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. (). Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/violence/9789241564007_eng.pdf
  72. World Health Organization/ London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  73. Yllö, K., & Torres, M. G. (2016). Marital rape: Consent, marriage, and social change in global context. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Yoshikawa, K., Agrawal, N. R., Poudel, K. C., & Jimba, M. (2012). A lifetime experience of violence and adverse reproductive outcomes: Findings from population surveys in india. Bioscience Trends, 6(3), 115–121.  https://doi.org/10.5582/bst.2012.v6.3.115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yount, K. M., DiGirolamo, A. M., & Ramakrishnan, U. (2011). Impacts of domestic violence on child growth and nutrition: A conceptual review of the pathways of influence. Social Science & Medicine, 72(9), 1534–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zakar, R., Zakar, M. Z., Mikolajczyk, R., & Kramer, A. (2012). Intimate partner violence and its association with women’s reproductive health in pakistan. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: The Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 117(1), 10–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2011.10.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zureick-Brown, S., Lavilla, K., & Yount, K. M. (2015). Intimate partner violence and infant feeding practices in india: A cross-sectional study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 11(4), 792–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan School of NursingAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.University of Michigan Center for Sexuality and Health DisparitiesAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations