Microaggressions are associated with mental and behavioral health problems and are common experiences for sexual and gender minority adolescents (SGMA). Little is known about the social ecological correlates of family-level interpersonal and environmental microaggressions for SGMA. Utilizing a national sample of SGMA (N = 1,177), this study (a) identified the frequencies of family-level interpersonal and environmental microaggressions by participant demographics and (b) examined individual-, family-, and structural-level factors associated with interpersonal and environmental microaggressions. Outness to parents, a transgender or genderqueer identity, and higher levels of gender role non-conformity were associated with higher frequencies of interpersonal microaggressions. Higher levels of family-level child maltreatment and religiosity were associated with higher frequencies of interpersonal and environmental microaggressions. State-level non-discrimination protections were associated with lower frequencies of environmental microaggressions. Suggestions for increased individual-level support for gender non-binary adolescents as well as family targeted preventive strategies are discussed. Areas for future research are highlighted.
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This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Justice (2013-IJ-CX-0029) awarded to University of California, Berkeley. Portions of this paper were presented at the 2017 Annual Conference for the Society for Social Work Research (New Orleans, LA).
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Gartner, R.E., Sterzing, P.R. Social Ecological Correlates of Family-Level Interpersonal and Environmental Microaggressions Toward Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents. J Fam Viol 33, 1–16 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-017-9937-0
- Sexual minority
- Gender minority
- Family violence
- Minority stress