Redefining Intimate Partner Violence Beyond the Binary to Include Transgender People
- 1.3k Downloads
Since the mid-1970s, the field of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has debated over gender differences in the perpetration of physical partner violence. However, this classical controversy has ignored transgender people since their gender does not seemingly fit the binary categories (male and female) first used to conceptualize IPV. Furthermore, sustained attention on this ceaseless argument has contributed to transgender people remaining invisible to the field of IPV. In this article, we redefine IPV to extend beyond the gender binary and invite the field to shift its focus to transgender people. Research suggests that as many as one in two transgender individuals are victims of IPV, but that multiple barriers prevent this group from acquiring protection that is afforded to others. Therefore, we propose that researchers direct their attention to this topic, and thus, inform police officers, victim advocates, and medical professionals who work directly to combat IPV for all.
KeywordsTransgender Gender identity Gender binary Intimate partner violence Domestic violence
- Brown, N. (2011). Holding tensions of victimization and perpetration: Partner abuse in trans communities. In J. L. Ristock’s (Ed.), Intimate partner violence in LGBTQ lives (pp. 153–168). New York: Routledge Publishing.Google Scholar
- Brown, T.N.T., & Herman, J.L. (2015). Intimate partner violence and sexual abuse among LGBT people: A review of existing research. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Intimate-Partner-Violence-and-Sexual-Abuse-among-LGBT-People.pdf.
- Clements, K., Katz, M., & Marx, R. (1999). The transgender community health project. San Francisco: University of California San Francisco.Google Scholar
- Courvant, D., & Cooks-Daniels, L. (n.d.). Trans and intersex survivors of domestic violence: Defining terms, barriers, & responsibilities. Survivor Project. Retrieved from http://www.survivorproject.org/defbarresp.html.
- Dutton, D. G. (2006). Rethinking domestic violence. Toronto: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- FORGE. (2011). Transgender domestic violence and sexual assault resource sheet. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/Training%20and%20TA%20Center/2011_FORGE_Trans_DV_SA_Resource_Sheet.pdf.
- Galvan, F.H., & Bazargan, M. (2012). Interactions of Latina transgender women with law enforcement. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Galvan-Bazargan-Interactions-April-2012.pdf.
- Goodmark, L. (2013). Transgender people, intimate partner abuse, and the legal system. Harvard Civil Rights – Civil Liberties Law Review, 48(1), 51–104.Google Scholar
- Grant, J. M., Mottet, L. A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J. L., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, K. (2012). Still hidden in the closet: trans women and domestic violence. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice, 27(2), 198–251.Google Scholar
- Landers, S. & Gilsanz, P. (2009). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Massachusetts: A survey of health issues comparing LGBT persons with their heterosexual and non-transgender counterparts. Massachusetts Department of Public Health.Google Scholar
- Langenderfer-Magruder, L., Whitfield, D.L., Walls, N.E., Kattari, S.K., & Ramos, D. (2014) Experiences of intimate partner violence and subsequent police reporting among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adults in Colorado: Comparing rates of cisgender and transgender victimization. J Interpers Violence, 1–17. doi: 10.1177/088626051455676
- Lev, A. I., & Sennott, S. (2012). Understanding gender nonconformity and transgender identity: A sex-positive approach. In P. J. Kleinplatz (Ed.), New directions in sex therapy: Innovations and alternatives (2nd ed., pp. 321–336). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Namaste, V. K. (2000). Invisible lives: The erasure of transsexual and transgendered people. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP). (2011). Hate violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and HIV-affected communities in the United States in 2010. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/Reports/2012_NCAVP_2011_HV_Report.pdf.
- National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP). (2013). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected intimate partner violence in 2012. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/ncavp_2012_ipvreport.final.pdf.
- Roch, A., Morton, J., & Ritchie, G. (2010). Out of sight, out of mind?: Transgender people’s experiences of domestic abuse. LGBT Youth Scotland & Equality Network.Google Scholar
- White, C., & Goldberg, J. (2006). Expanding our understanding of gendered violence: violence against trans people and their loved ones. Canadian Women’s Studies, 25(1–2), 124–127.Google Scholar