Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Risk Factors for Women’s Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: An Examination from the Perspective of the Schema Therapy Model

Abstract

This study attempted to examine risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization against women in terms of the schema therapy model (STM). Seventy-nine shelter-residing female IPV victims and 78 married female IPV non-victims participated in the study. The Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form, the Young Parenting Inventory, the Young Compensation Inventory, and the Young Avoidance Inventory were used. The results revealed that being young and having low income were risk factors for IPV victimization. Paternal parenting style was also found to be a further risk factor in addition to demographic variables. Further, the endorsement of disconnection and the unrelenting standards schema domains presented further information predicting IPV victimization above and beyond demographic variables and parenting styles. Maladaptive coping styles did not reveal themselves as maintenance factors for IPV victimization when the information gathered from demographic variables, parenting styles, and schema domains is taken out. The results are discussed in terms of the STM.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alhabib, S., Nur, U., & Jones, R. (2010). Domestic violence against women: Systematic review of prevalence studies. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 369–382.

  2. Astin, M. C., Ogland-Hand, S. M., Coleman, E. M., & Foy, D. W. (1995). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and childhood abuse in battered women: Comparisons with martially distressed women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(2), 308–312.

  3. Blissett, J., & Haycraft, E. (2008). Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related? Appetite, 50, 477–485.

  4. Browne, A. (1993). Violence against women by male partners: Prevalence, outcomes and policy implications. American Psychologist, 48(10), 1077–1087.

  5. Caetano, R., Vaeth, P. A. C., & Ramisetty-Mikler, S. (2008). Intimate partner violence victim and perpetrator characteristics among couples in United States. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 507–518.

  6. Çakır, Z. (2007). Antisosyal kişilik bozukluğunda erken dönem uyumsuz şemalar, algılanan ebeveynlik stilleri ve şema sürdürücü başa çıkma davranışları arasındaki ilişkiler: şema terapi modeli çerçevesinde bir inceleme [Relationship between early maladaptive schemas, perceived parenting styles and schema perpetuating coping styles in antisocial personality disorder: An assessment in terms of schema therapy model]. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Hacettepe University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

  7. Calvete, E., & Orue, I. (2013). Cognitive mechanisms of the transmission of violence: Exploring gender differences among adolescents exposed to family violence. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 73–84.

  8. Calvete, E., Corral, S., & Estévez, A. (2007a). Cognitive and coping mechanisms in the interplay between intimate partner violence and depression. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 20(4), 369–382.

  9. Calvete, E., Estévez, A., & Corral, S. (2007b). Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms in women: Cognitive schemas as moderators and mediators. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 791–804.

  10. Cascardi, M., O’Leary, K. D., Lawrence, E. E., & Schlee, K. (1995). Characteristics of women physically abused by their spouses and who seek treatment regarding marital conflict. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 616–623.

  11. Crawford, E., & O’Dougherty Wright, M. (2007). The impact of childhood psychological maltreatment on interpersonal schemas and subsequent experiences of relationship aggression. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 7(2), 93–116.

  12. Cukor, D., & McGinn, L. K. (2006). History of child abuse and severity of adult depression: The mediating role of cognitive schemata. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 15(3), 19–34.

  13. Dağ, İ. (1991). Belirti Tarama Listesi (SCL-90-R)‘nin üniversite öğrencileri için güvenirliği ve geçerliliği [Reliability and validity of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) for university students]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2(1), 5–12.

  14. Dahlberg, L. L., & Krug, E. G. (2002). Violence – a global public health problem. In E. G. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B. Zwi, & R. Lozano (Eds.), World report on violence and health (pp. 1–21). Geneva: World Health Organization.

  15. Downs, W. R., Miller, B. A., Testa, M., & Panek, D. (1992). Long-term effects of parent-to-child violence for women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 365–382.

  16. Dutton, M. A., Burghardt, K. J., Perrin, S. G., Chrestman, K. R., & Halle, P. M. (1994). Battered women’s cognitive schemata. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7(2), 237–255.

  17. Ellsberg, M., Peña, R., Herrera, A., Liljestrand, J., & Winkvist, A. (2000). Candies in hell: Women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua. Social Science and Medicine, 51(11), 1595–1610.

  18. Farrell, G. (1992). Multiple victimization: Its extent and significance. International Review of Victimology, 2, 85–102.

  19. Flynn, A., & Graham, K. (2010). “Why did it happen?” A review and conceptual framework for research on perpetrators’ and victims’ explanations for intimate partner violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 239–251.

  20. Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. H. (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet, 368(3543), 1260–1269.

  21. Gay, L. E., Harding, H. G., Jackson, J. L., Burns, E. E., & Baker, B. D. (2013). Attachment style and early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and intimate partner violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22, 408–424.

  22. Güleç Öyekçin, D., Yetim, D., & Şahin, E. M. (2012). Kadına yönelik farklı eş şiddeti tiplerini etkileyen psikososyal faktörler [Psychosocial factors affecting different types of violence against women]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 23(2), 75–81.

  23. Haycraft, E. L., & Blissett, J. M. (2008). Maternal and paternal controlling feeding practices: Reliability and relationships with BMI. Obesity, 16, 1552–1558.

  24. Hubbs-Tait, L., Kennedy, T. S., Page, M. C., Topham, G. L., & Harrist, A. W. (2008). Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(7), 1154–1161.

  25. Hyde-Nolan, M. E., & Juliano, T. (2012). Theoretical basis for family violence. In R. Fife and S. Schrager (Eds.), Family violence: What healthcare providers need to know (s. 5–21). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

  26. Jacobson, N. S., Gottman, J. W., Waltz, J., Rushe, R., et al. (1994). Affect, verbal content, and psychophysiology in the arguments of couples with a violent husband. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 982–988.

  27. Jansen, H. A. F. M., Yüksel, İ., & Çağatay, P. (2009). Kadına yönelik şiddetin yaygınlığı [Prevalence of violence against women]. T.C. Başbakanlık Kadının Statüsü Genel Müdürlüğü. In Türkiye’de kadına yönelik aile içi şiddet [Violence against women in Turkey] (pp. 45–70). Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Kadının Statüsü Genel Müdürlüğü.

  28. Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1996). The autonomous-relational self: A new synthesis. European Psychologist, 1(3), 180–186.

  29. Karaosmanoğlu, A., Soygüt, G., & Kabul, A. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Turkish Young Compensation Inventory. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 20(2), 171–179.

  30. Lloyd, S., Farrell, G., & Pease, K. (1994). Preventing repeated domestic violence: A demonstration project on Merseyside. London: Home Office Police Department.

  31. Maker, A. H., Kemmelmeier, M., & Peterson, C. (1998). Long-term psychological consequences in women of witnessing parental physical conflict and experiencing abuse in childhood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(5), 574–589.

  32. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.

  33. Mihalic, S. W., & Elliott, D. (1997a). A social learning theory model of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 12(1), 21–47.

  34. Mihalic, S. W., & Elliott, D. (1997b). If violence is domestic, does it really count? Journal of Family Violence, 12(3), 293–311.

  35. Naçar, M., Baykan, Z., Poyrazoğlu, S., & Çetinkaya, F. (2009). Kayseri ilinde iki sağlık ocağı bölgesinde kadına yönelik aile içi şiddet [Violence against women in two health center in the Kayseri province]. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 8(2), 131–138.

  36. O’Neill, M. L., & Kerig, P. K. (2000). Attributions of self-blame and perceived control as moderators of adjustment in battered women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 1036–1050.

  37. Phares, V., & Compas, B. E. (1992). The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: Make room for daddy. Psychological Bulletin, 111(3), 387–412.

  38. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

  39. Renner, L. M., & Shook Slack, K. (2006). Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment: Understanding intra- and intergenerational connections. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(6), 599–817.

  40. Şahin, B. (2011). Alkol bağımlıları ve eşlerinde evlilik uyumu, bağlanma biçimi ve mizaç karakter özellikleri arasındaki ilişki [Relationship between marital adjustment, attachment type and temperament characteristics of alcoholics and their spouses]. Unpublished Specialty in Medicine Thesis. Ankara, Turkey: Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Psychiatry Department.

  41. Schornstein, S. L. (1997). The dynamics of abuse. In Domestic violence and health care: What every professional needs to know (pp. 46–69). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

  42. Soygüt, G. (2007). Young-Rygh kaçınma ölçeği (YR-KÖ)‘nin psikometrik özellikleri [Psychometric properties of Young-Rygh Avoidance Inventory (YR-AI)]. Unpublished instrument .Retrieved from: http://tr.goncasoygut.com/tr2/?page_id=72

  43. Soygüt, G. (2012). Parental styles: Universalities and cultural specificities [special issue]. International Journal of Psychology, 47, 237–238.

  44. Soygüt, G., & Karaosmanoğlu, A. (2005). The Relationship between parenting style and interpersonal schemas. Presented at the meeting of European Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. Greece: Thessaloniki.

  45. Soygüt, G., Çakır, Z., & Karaosmanoğlu, A. (2008). Ebeveynlik biçimlerinin değerlendirilmesi: Young Ebeveynlik Ölçeği’nin psikometrik özelliklerine ilişkin bir inceleme [Assessment of parenting styles: A psychometric study of the Turkish Young Parenting Inventory]. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 11(22), 17–30.

  46. Soygüt, G., Karaosmanoğlu, A., & Çakır, Z. (2009). Erken dönem uyumsuz şemaların değerlendirilmesi: Young Şema Ölçeği Kısa Form–3'ün psikometrik özelliklerine ilişkin bir inceleme [Assessment of early maladaptive schemas: A psychometric study of the Turkish Young Schema Questionnaire–Short Form–3]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 20(1), 75–84.

  47. Stith, S. M., Smith, D. B., Penn, C. E., Ward, D. B., & Tritt, D. (2004). Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: a meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 65–98.

  48. Swartout, K. M., Cook, S. L., & White, J. W. (2012). Trajectories of intimate partner violence victimization. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(3), 272–277.

  49. Taşkale, N. (2014). Aile içi şiddet mağduru kadınların Şema Terapi Modeli açısından incelenmesi [Analysis of domestic violence victim women in terms of Schema Focused Model]. Hacettepe University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Ankara, Turkey: Unpublished Master’s Thesis.

  50. Taşkale, N., & Soygüt, G. (2015). Sığınaklarda kalan şiddet mağduru kadınlar: Demografik ve sosyoekonomik bir inceleme [Shelter-residing female violence victims: A demographic and socioeconomic examination]. Manuscript in preparation.

  51. Walker, L. E. (2009). Learned helplessness, learned optimism and battered women. In The battered woman syndrome. 3rd ed. NY: Springer Publication Cooperation.

  52. Watts, C., & Zimmerman, C. (2002). Violence against women: global scope and magnitude. The Lancet, 359(9313), 1232–1237.

  53. White, J. W., Smith, P. H. (2004). Longitudinal perspective on physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women. In B. Fisher (Ed.), Violence Against Women and Family Violence: Developments in Research, Practice, and Policy (pp. II/2/1–II/2/10). Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

  54. Yıldırım, A. (1996). Sığınaklarda kalan kadınların uğradığı şiddetin boyutları, The dimensions of violence experienced by shelter-residing women. Ankara, Turkey: Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Hacettepe University Graduate School of Social Sciences.

  55. Young, J. E. (1994). Young parenting inventory. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.

  56. Young, J. E. (1995). Young compensation inventory. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.

  57. Young, J. E. (1998). Young schema inventory – short form. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.

  58. Young, J. E., & Brown, G. (1990). Young schema questionnaire. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.

  59. Young, J. E., & Rygh, J. (1994). Young-Rygh avoidance inventory. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.

  60. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: The Guilford Press.

Download references

Acknowledgments

Findings reported here are derived from the Master’s thesis of the first author under the supervision of the second author. The study was conducted with the permission of Hacettepe University Ethics Committee and the Family and Social Policies Ministry of Turkey. The authors want to thank Assoc. Prof. Özlem Sertel-Berk for her invaluable contribution during the data analysis process.

Author information

Correspondence to Nermin Taşkale.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Taşkale, N., Soygüt, G. Risk Factors for Women’s Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: An Examination from the Perspective of the Schema Therapy Model. J Fam Viol 32, 3–12 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-016-9855-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Early maladaptive schemas
  • Parenting styles
  • Coping styles
  • Shelters