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Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photoluminescence of 3-chloro-6-methoxy-2-(methylsulfanyl)quinoxaline in Different Solvents: An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation Using DFT

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In the present work, we synthesized 3-chloro-6-methoxy-2-(methyl sulfanyl) quinoxaline (3MSQ) using a microwave-assisted synthesis method. The physicochemical structural analysis of the synthesized compound utilizing 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The photophysical properties of 3MSQ was examined through absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analyses revealed a bathochromic shift in both absorption and fluorescence spectra, attributed to the π → π* transition. Ground and excited state dipole moments was experimentally determined using the solvatochromic shift method, employing various correlations such as Lippert’s, Bakhshiev’s, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet’s equations, and solvent polarity parameters. Our findings indicate that the excited state dipole moments exceed those of the ground state, suggesting increased polarity in the excited state. Further, the while detailed bond length, bond angles, dihedral angles, Mulliken charge distribution, ground state dipole moments and HOMO–LUMO energy gap estimated through ab initio computations using Gaussian-09W. The value of energy band gap obtained from both the methods are in good agreement. Furthermore, employing DFT computational analysis, we identified reactive centers such as electrophilic and nucleophilic sites using molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) 3D plots. Additionally, CIE chromaticity analysis was performed to understand the photoluminescent properties of 3MSQ. The insights derived from these analyses contribute to a better understanding of the molecule's electronic structure, photophysical properties, and solute–solvent interactions, thus providing valuable information regarding its behaviour and characteristics under diverse conditions. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the molecular structure and properties of 3-chloro-6-methoxy-2-(methyl sulfanyl) quinoxaline (3MSQ).

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We thank Dr. Shahabuddin and Dr. Chandan Mitra, NCBS, GKVK campus, Bengaluru and DST-FIST Lab, Maharani Cluster University, Bengaluru, for their support during the work. The authors extend their thanks to Researchers Supporting Project Number (RSP2024R348), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


The authors received no financial support for the research to publish present research article.

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Suma M: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Software; Writing—original draft. Sushma G.N: Conceptualization; Software; Writing—original draft. S.S. Bellad: Resources. Narasimha Murthy V.N: Resources. Bandar Ali AlAsbahi: Roles/Writing—original draft; Writing—review & editing. Nadaf Y.F: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Investigation; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing—original draft; Writing—review & editing.

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Suma, M., Sushma, G.N., Bellad, S.S. et al. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photoluminescence of 3-chloro-6-methoxy-2-(methylsulfanyl)quinoxaline in Different Solvents: An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation Using DFT. J Fluoresc (2024).

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