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The Development of the Fluorescence-based Portable Device for Lead (II) and Formalin Determination in Food Samples by Using Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots (N-CDs)

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The fluorescence-based portable device for the determination of lead (Pb2+) and formalin (FA) in food samples by using Nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) as a fluorescence probe was developed. The proposed approach, Pb2+, and FA were determined based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) mechanism and the silver mirror reaction. The fluorescence intensity of the N-CDs decreased with the increase of Pb2+ concentration and increased with the increasing FA concentration. The fluorescence intensity of N-CDs after the reactions were measured by a filter-free fluorometer platform using a commercial camera module and a Raspberry Pi, a compact computer, as a detector and processor. The experimental results were obtained using control samples with known Pb2+ and FA concentrations in the 0.01-10 mg L− 1 and 25–150 mg L− 1, respectively. The proposed approach is simple, low-cost, and accurate for the on-site monitoring of Pb2+ and FA in various food samples. Of utmost importance, the proposed approach is expected to be a pioneering model for the future development of other analytes with a broad range of practical applications.

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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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This project was supported by Ubon Ratchathani University. The Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research, and Innovation, was given to B. Wongsing. The research scholarships and instrumental facilities of the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, and Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand, are also gratefully acknowledged.


Ubon Ratchathon University provided funding.

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Authors and Affiliations



Budsakorn Wongsing: Methodology; Investigation; Validation; And writing- original draft; Funding acquisition. Suangsuda Promkot: Methodology; Investigation; Validation. Puttaraksa Naksen: Resources; Investigation; Writing - review & editing. Sirirat Ouiganon: Investigation; Validation. Chittanon Buranachai: Resources; Supervision; Writing - review & editing. Kittirat Phooplub: Conceptualization; Methodology; Supervision; Writing - review & editing. Purim Jarujamrus: Conceptualization; Methodology; Funding acquisition; Project administration; Supervision; Writing - review & editing.

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Correspondence to Kittirat Phooplub or Purim Jarujamrus.

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Wongsing, B., Promkot, S., Naksen, P. et al. The Development of the Fluorescence-based Portable Device for Lead (II) and Formalin Determination in Food Samples by Using Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots (N-CDs). J Fluoresc 33, 565–574 (2023).

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