A Novel Application of Fluorine Doped Carbon Dots Combining Vortex-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for Determination of 4-Nitrophenol with Spectrofluorimetric Method

  • Shouai Feng
  • Zhao Mu
  • Hong Liu
  • Jiangfeng Huang
  • Xiaolan Li
  • Yaling YangEmail author
Original Article


A simple and fast vortex-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction (VA-LLME) combining with fluorescent carbon dots have been developed for the determination 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The high fluorescent quantum yield (58.9%) fluorine doped carbon dots (F-CDs) were synthesized using tetrafluoroterephthalic acid as a fluorine source and using citric acid as a fluorine source and using ethylenediamine as a nitrogen source via a one-step hydrothermal method. F-CDs fluorescence was effectively quenched by 4-NP due to inner filter effect (IFE) and the strong interactions between functional groups (-COOH,-OH, -NH2 and -F groups) of the F-CDs and 4-NP. In VALLME method, n-octanol was employed as extraction solvent, and vortex-mix was exploited as a gentle mix method to reduce emulsification time and improve the extraction efficiency. The detection limits, the quantification limit and relative standard deviation for the 4-NP were found as 15 nM, 50 nM and 3.5%, respectively. Moreover, the obtained F-CDs can be employed as fluorescent probe to detect 4-NP in real environmental water samples.


Fluorescent carbon dots 4-nitrophenol VA-LLME Detection 



This study was supported by the Analysis and Testing Foundation of Kunming University of Science and Technology (2018 M20172118065), Yunnan Province, China.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shouai Feng
    • 1
  • Zhao Mu
    • 2
  • Hong Liu
    • 1
  • Jiangfeng Huang
    • 1
  • Xiaolan Li
    • 1
  • Yaling Yang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Technology Centre of China Tobacco Guangxi Industrial Co., LTDNanningChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Life Science and TechnologyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

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