Skip to main content

Fluorescent Probe ABM and Estimation of Immune State in Patients with Different Pathologies (Review Article)


The fluorescent probe ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative) one of the fluorescent probes synthesized in Riga Technical University proved to be an excellent, independent model for studying cell membranes. In our work we have investigated the possibility of using the fluorescent probe ABM for detection of immune state in patients with different pathologies. There is a strong correlation among all studied ABM spectral parameters, immunological characteristics, clinical and laboratory investigations of the all observed patients groups. The obtained results suggest that ABM spectral parameters in cell suspension reflect the alterations of the cellular mechanisms of immunity. Therefore fluorescent method could be used as preliminary screening test in immune diagnostics instead of more expensive, time consuming methods (subset detection, radioisotope method etc.) used as routine in clinics. Spectral parameters of ABM reflect a wide range of interrelated (interdependent) characteristics of cells (physico-chemical state and microviscosity of membrane, proliferating and lipid metabolic activity of cells, distribution of cells among subsets). The observed change of the studied parameters reflects alterations of the cellular mechanisms of immunity which is a main focus for its application as preliminary screening test in immune diagnostics. The fluorescence based method is sensitive, less expensive and time consuming, technically simple and convenient.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    Kalnina I, Meirovics I, Rashkina E (1996) Some benzanthrone aminoderatives as potential fluorescent probes. Functional Materials (Institute for Single Crystals, Kharkov, Ukraine), Nr. 3/4, 551–555.

  2. 2.

    Kalnina I, Meirovics I (1999) A new fluorescent probe: ABM: properties and application in clinical diagnostics. Jn Fluoresc 9:27–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kalnina I, Meirovies I, Rashkina E (1997) Some benzanthrone amino derivatives as potential fluorescent probes and their approbation in clinics. In: NATO Advanced Workshop on Synthesis, Optica! Properties, and Applications of Near-Infd (NIR) Dyes in High Technology Fields, Trest, Czech Republic, p. 18

  4. 4.

    Kalnina I, Meirovics I, Klimkāne L, Brūvere R (1999) A new fluorescent method of detection structural and tunctional properties of cells and immune state of organism. In: Greve J, Puppels GJ, Otto C (eds) Spectroscopy of biological molecules: new directions, eight European conference on spectroscopy of biological molecules Enshede, The Netherlands. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 443–444

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Shinitzky M (1984) Membrane fluidity and cellular functions. In: Shinitzky M (ed) Physiology of Membrane Fluidity. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 1–52

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Извекова BA (1991) Липиды мембран и функции иммунокомпетентных клеток внорме и патологии. (Membrane lipids and functions of immunocompetent cells in norm and pathology), Успехи Cовр. Биол.111(4), 577–590 (in Russian).

  7. 7.

    Lakowicz JR (1999) Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kalnina I, Bruvere R, Gabruseva N, Zvagule T, Heisele O, Volrate A, Feldmane G, Meirovics I (2004) Phenotypical characteristics of leukocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia: use of fluorescent probe ABM. Биол Mem (Biol. Memb.) 21(1):72–78

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Грызунов ЮА, Добрецов ГЕ (1994) Альбумин сыворотки в клинической медицине (Plasma Albumin in Clinical Medicine). Москва, Ириус, 226 с. (in Russian)

  10. 10.

    Korkina L, Dobretsov GE, Walzel G, Kogan EM, Zimin YI, Vladimirov YI (1981) Membrane fluorescent probes for the demonstration of lymphocytes population heterogeneity. 1. T and B lymphocytes of mice and rats. Jn of Immunol Meth 45(3):227–237

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Klimkane L, Kalnina I, Engele L, Jaunalksne I, Donina S, Meirovics I (1998) Indirect estimation of lipid metabolic activity of lymphocytes plasma membrane as a new criterion in diagnostics of immune status in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Ann Oncol 9(Suppl. 4):55

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bruvere R, Gabruseva N, Kalnina I, Feldmane G, Meirovics L (2003) Fluorescent characteristics of blood leukocytes of patients with Malignant and Nonmalignant Diseases. Jn Fluoresc 13(2):149–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Klimkane L, Kalnina I, Meirovics I, Engele L, Jaunalksne I (2003) Functional activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes monitored by the fluorescent probe ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative) in cancer patients. Proc Latvian Acad Sci Sect B 57(5):180–186

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kruckova H, Pilmane M, Kalnina I, Meirovics I, Scripchanova V (1996) Studying of human peripheral lymphocytes membranes in patients with lung tuberculosis and healthy donors. Eur Resp Jn 7 9(Suppl.23):335

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kalnina I, Metra M, Licitis I, Meirovics I (1999) In: Kotyk A (ed) Estimation of T-cell subpopulation significance in multiple sclerosis patients. hinFluorescent Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes, Proceedings of the Third Conference, Prague, Espero Publisg, Prague, pp 295–300.

  16. 16.

    Kalnina I, Zvagule T, Bruvere R, Meirovics I (2005) Fluorescent characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis patients blood lymphocytes. Jn Fluoresc 15(2):105–l10

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Klimkane L, Kalnina I, Engele L, Jaunalksne I, Donina S, Zakenfelds G, Mcirovics I (1999) Estimation of lymphocyte functional activity in gastrointestinal cancer patients (fluorescent method). Fluorescent Microscopy and Fluorescent Probes. Proceedings of the Third Conference, held in Prague on June 20–23, 1990. A. Kotyk (ed.). Espero Publishing Prague, pp 339–341.

  18. 18.

    Qulinn PJ, Chapman D (1980) The dynamics of membrane structure. Crit Rev Biochem 8:111–117

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Anel A, Noval J, Gonsalez B, Torres JM, Mishal Z, Uriel J, Pineiri A (1990) Fatty acid metabolism in human lymphocytes. I. Time-course changes in fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity during blastic transformation peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1044:323–331

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kalofoutis A, Nicolaidou-Politis V, Bouloukos A (1996) Significance of lymphocyte fatty acid changes in chronic renal failure. Nephron 73:704–706

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Robinson LE, Clandinin MT, Field CI (2001) R3230 AC Rat mammary tumor and dietary long-chain (n = 3) fatty acids change immune cell composition and function during mitogen activation. Jn Nutr 131:2001–2027

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Jack CIA, Jackson MJ, Hind CRK (1994) Circulating markers of free radical activity in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tubercle Lung Dis 75:132–137

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Huber IA, Xu GB, Jurgcns G, Bock G, Rubier F, Gey KF, Schonitzer D, Trail KN, Wick G (1991) Correlation of lymphocyte lipid composition, membrane microviscosity and mitogene response in the aged. Eur J Immunol 11:2761–2765

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kim CW, Choi SH, Chung EI, Lee MJ, Byun EK, Ryu MN, Bang YI (1999) Alterations of signal-transducing molecules and phenotypical characteristics in peripheral blood lymphocytes from gastric carcinoma patients. Pathobiology 61:123–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Hohfeld R, Meinl E, Weber F et al (1995) The role of autoimmune T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 45(suppl. 6):533

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bail GV, Koopmen WJ (1986) Clinical rheumatology. Saunders, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Skapenko A, Wendler J, Lipsky PE, Kalden JR, Schulzekoops H (1999) Altered memory T-cell differentiation in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunology 49(4):298–304

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Benderitter M, Vincent-Genod L, Pouget JP, Voisin P (2003) The cell membrane as biosensor of oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure: a multiparameter investigation. Radiat Res 159:471–483

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Berroud A, Le Roy A, Voisin A (1996) A membrane oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation detected by fluorescence polarization. Radiat Environ Biophys 35:289–295

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kalnina I, Klimkane L, Kirilova E, Toma MM, Kizane G, Meirovics I (2007) Fluorescent probe ABM for screening gastrointestinal patient’s immune state. J Fluoresc 17:619–625

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kalnina I, Zvagule T, Gabruseva N, Kirilova E, Kurjane N, Bruvere R, Skesters A, Kizane G, Kirilovs G, Meirovics I (2007) Structural changes in lymphocytes membrane of chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. J Fluoresc 17:633–638

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Миллер ЮИ, Добрецов ГЕ, Колчин ЮА, (1991) Анион-связывающие центры сывороточново альбумина человека при конформационном переходе N-F в выделенном альбумине и в сыворотке крови (Anion-binding sites at the N-F conformational transition in isolated albumin and blood plasma), Биофизика 36(3), 505–508. (in Russian).

  33. 33.

    Rolinski OI, Martin A, Birch DJS (2007) Human serum albumin and quercetin interactions monitored by time resolved fluorescence evidence of enhanced discrete rotamer conformations. J Biomed Optics 12(3), 034013-1-0344013-7.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Verma SP, Sonwalkar N (1991) Structural changes in plasma membranes prepared from irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Radiat Res 126:27–35

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Inta Kalnina.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kalnina, I., Bruvere, R., Zvagule, T. et al. Fluorescent Probe ABM and Estimation of Immune State in Patients with Different Pathologies (Review Article). J Fluoresc 20, 9–17 (2010).

Download citation


  • Fluorescent probe
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
  • Immune state
  • Different pathologies
  • Radiation effects