Incorporating Ethics into Artificial Intelligence
- 3k Downloads
This article reviews the reasons scholars hold that driverless cars and many other AI equipped machines must be able to make ethical decisions, and the difficulties this approach faces. It then shows that cars have no moral agency, and that the term ‘autonomous’, commonly applied to these machines, is misleading, and leads to invalid conclusions about the ways these machines can be kept ethical. The article’s most important claim is that a significant part of the challenge posed by AI-equipped machines can be addressed by the kind of ethical choices made by human beings for millennia. Ergo, there is little need to teach machines ethics even if this could be done in the first place. Finally, the article points out that it is a grievous error to draw on extreme outlier scenarios—such as the Trolley narratives—as a basis for conceptualizing the ethical issues at hand.
KeywordsArtificial intelligence Autonomy Ethics Self-driving cars Trolley problem
- Anderson, Michael, and Susan Leigh Anderson (eds.). 2011. Machine ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Batavia, Parag H., Dean A. Pomerleau, and Charles E. Thorpe. 1996. Applying advanced learning algorithms to ALVINN. Carnegie Mellon University, The Robotics Institute. http://www.ri.cmu.edu/pub_files/pub1/batavia_parag_1996_1/batavia_parag_1996_1.pdf.
- Beshears, John, James J. Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian. 2009. The importance of default options for retirement saving outcomes: evidence from the United States. In Social security policy in a changing environment, ed. David A. Wise, and Jeffrey B. Liebman, 167–195. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bojarski, Mariusz, Davide Del Testa, Daniel Dworakowski, Bernhard Firner, Beat Flepp, Prasoon Goyal, Lawrence D. Jackel et al. 2016. End to end learning for self-driving cars. arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.07316.
- Constant, Benjamin. 1797. Des réactions politiques. Oeuvres complètes 1: 1774–1799.Google Scholar
- DMello, Alvin. 2015. Rise of the humans: intelligence amplification will make us as smart as the machines. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/rise-of-the-humans-intelligence-amplification-will-make-us-as-smart-as-the-machines-44767.
- Domingos, Pedro. 2015. The master algorithm: How the quest for the ultimate learning machine will remake our world. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Etzioni, Amitai, and Oren Etzioni. 2016b. Keeping AI legal. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law 19: 133–146.Google Scholar
- Gibbs, Samuel. 2015. What’s it like to drive with Tesla’s autopilot and how does it work? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/01/tesla-autopilot-model-s-crash-how-does-it-work.
- Harris, Mark. 2015. New pedestrian detector from Google could make self-driving cars cheaper. IEEE Spectrum. http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/self-driving/new-pedestrian-detector-from-google-could-make-selfdriving-cars-cheaper.
- Harris, Sam. 2011. The moral landscape: How science can determine human values. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Hsu, Jeremy. 2016. Deep learning makes driverless cars better at spotting pedestrians. IEEE Spectrum. http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/advanced-cars/deep-learning-makes-driverless-cars-better-at-spotting-pedestrians.
- Joy, Bill. 2000. Why the future doesn’t need us. WIRED. http://www.wired.com/2000/04/joy-2/.
- Levin, Sam and Nicky Woolf. 2016. Tesla driver killed while using autopilot was watching Harry Potter, witness says. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/01/tesla-driver-killed-autopilot-self-driving-car-harry-potter.
- Lohr, Steve. 2015. Homes try to reach smart switch. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/23/business/energy-environment/homes-try-to-reach-smart-switch.html?_r=0.
- Luban, David. 2005. Liberalism, torture, and the ticking bomb. Virginia Law Review 91: 1425–1461.Google Scholar
- Markoff, John. 2015. Machines of loving grace: the quest for common ground between humans and robots. New York: ECCO.Google Scholar
- Metz, Cade. 2016. Self-driving cars will teach themselves to save lives—but also take them. WIRED. http://www.wired.com/2016/06/self-driving-cars-will-power-kill-wont-conscience/.
- Mill, John Stuart. 2008. On liberty and other essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Millar, Jason. 2014. You should have a say in your robot car’s code of ethics. WIRED. http://www.wired.com/2014/09/set-the-ethics-robot-car/.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2013. Traffic safety facts 2013: A compilation of motor vehicle crash data from the fatality analysis reporting system and the general estimates system. US Department of Transportation. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812139.
- O’Connor, James. 2012. The trolley method of moral philosophy. Essays in Philosophy 13: 242–255.Google Scholar
- Rozenfield, Monica. 2016. The next step for artificial intelligence is machines that get smarter on their own. The Institute. http://theinstitute.ieee.org/technology-topics/artificial-intelligence/the-next-step-for-artificial-intelligence-is-machines-that-get-smarter-on-their-own.
- Spice, Byron. 2016. Carnegie Mellon transparency reports make AI decision-making accountable. Carnegie Mellon Computer University School of Computer Science. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/news/carnegie-mellon-transparency-reports-make-ai-decision-making-accountable.
- Waymo, https://waymo.com/journey/. Accessed 14 Feb 2017.