Skip to main content

Relative labour deprivation and urban migration in Turkey

Abstract

The paper develops a concept, a measure and an index of relative labour deprivation and applies these tools to measure deprivation in urban areas of South-East Turkey. It is shown how a Yitzhaki-type of relative deprivation index can be applied to the labor domain and be extended to take into account the notion of reference group derived from modern theories of social justice. In the absence of panel or longitudinal data, such measure results particularly useful to derive policy recommendations for areas characterized by heterogeneous communities. Contrary to what conventional statistics and wisdom would suggest, we find migrants from Eastern Turkey to be less relatively labour deprived than other groups of migrants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Alesina, A., La Ferrara, E.: Ethnic diversity and economic performance. J. Econ. Lit. 43(3), 762–800 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Berrebi, Z.M., Silber, J.: Income inequality indices and deprivation: a generalisation. Q. J. Econ. 100(3), 807–810 (1985)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bossert, W., D’Ambrosio, C.: Reference groups and individual deprivation. Econ. Lett. 90, 421–426 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bossert, W., D’Ambrosio, C., Peragine, V.: Deprivation and social exclusion. Economica 74, 777–803 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chakravarty, S.R.: Relative deprivation and satisfaction orderings. Keio Econ. Stud. 34(2), 17–31 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Chakavrarty, S.R., Chattopadhyay, N., Majumder, A.: Income inequality and relative deprivation. Keio Econ. Stud. 32, 1–15 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Clark, A., Oswald, A.: Satisfaction and comparison income. J. Public Econ. 61, 359–381 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    D’Ambrosio, C, Frick, J.R.: Income satisfaction and relative deprivation: an empirical link. Soc. Indic. Res. 81, 497–519 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Duclos, J-Y: Gini indices and the redistribution of income. Int. Tax Public Financ. 7, 141–162 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Duclos, J-Y, Esteban, J., Ray, D.: Polarization: concepts, measurement, estimation. Econometrica 72, 1737–1772 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ebert, U., Moyes, P.: An axiomatic characterization of Yitzhakis index of individual deprivation. Econ. Lett. 68, 263–270 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Esteban, J., Ray, D.: On the measurement of polarization. Econometrica 62, 819–852 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Fahey, T., Whelan, T., Maitre, B.: First European quality of life survey: income inequalities and deprivation. Technical report. European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions (2005)

  14. 14.

    Hey, J.D., Lambert, P.J.: Relative deprivation and the Gini coefficient: comment. Q. J. Econ. 95(3), 567–573 (1980)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kakwani, N.: The relative deprivation curve and its applications. J. Bus. Econ. Stat. 2(4), 384–394 (1984)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lee, P., Murie, A., Gordon, D.: Area Measures of Deprivation: A Study of Current Methods and Best Practices in the Identification of Poor Areas in Great Britain. Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (1995)

  17. 17.

    Muffels, J.A., Tsakloglou, P., Mayes, D.G.: Social Exclusion in European Welfare States. Edward Elgar, Aldershot (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Podder, N.: Relative deprivation, envy and economic inequality. Kyklos 49(3), 353–376 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Runciman, W.G.: Relative deprivation and social justice. Reports of the Institute of Community Studies. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Henley, London (1966)

  20. 20.

    Sen, A.: Commodities and Capabilities. Elsevier, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    SIS: Population Census 2000. State Institute of Statistics, Ankara (2002)

  22. 22.

    Stouffer, S., Suchman, E., DeVinney, L., Star, S., Williams, R.: The American Soldier (1). Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1949)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Townsend, P.: Poverty in the United Kingdom. A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living. Penguin, Harmondsworth (1979)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Verme, P., Izem, R.: Relative deprivation with imperfect information. Econ. Bull. 4(7), 1–9 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Yitzhaki, S.: Relative deprivation and the Gini coefficient. Q. J. Econ. 93(2), 321–324 (1979)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yitzhaki, S.: Relative deprivation and economic welfare. Eur. Econ. Rev. 17, 99–113 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paolo Verme.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Verme, P. Relative labour deprivation and urban migration in Turkey. J Econ Inequal 8, 391–408 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-009-9114-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Labour participation
  • Reference groups
  • Relative deprivation
  • Turkey