The Effects of Milkweed Induced Defense on Parasite Resistance in Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus
Many plants express induced defenses against herbivores through increasing the production of toxic secondary chemicals following damage. Phytochemical induction can directly or indirectly affect other organisms within the community. In tri-trophic systems, increased concentrations of plant toxins could be detrimental to plants if herbivores can sequester these toxins as protective chemicals for themselves. Thus, through trophic interactions, induction can lead to either positive or negative effects on plant fitness. We examined the effects of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) induced defenses on the resistance of monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) to a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha). Milkweeds contain toxic secondary chemicals called cardenolides, higher concentrations of which are associated with reduced parasite growth. Previous work showed that declines in foliar cardenolides caused by aphid attack render monarch caterpillars more susceptible to infection. Here, we ask whether cardenolide induction by monarchs increases monarch resistance to disease. We subjected the high-cardenolide milkweed A. curassavica and the low-cardenolide A. syriaca to caterpillar grazing, and reared infected and uninfected caterpillars on these plants. As expected, monarchs suffered less parasite growth and disease when reared on A. curassavica than on A. syriaca. We also found that herbivory increased cardenolide concentrations in A. curassavica, but not A. syriaca. However, cardenolide induction in A. curassavica was insufficient to influence monarch resistance to the parasite. Our results suggest that interspecific variation in cardenolide concentration is a more important driver of parasite defense than plasticity via induced defenses in this tri-trophic system.
KeywordsInduction Herbivory Trophic interactions Asclepias Ophryocystis elektroscirrha
We thank M. Tsai, A. Ahmad, and Y. Li for help with the experiments, H. Streit for help with the chemical analyses, H. Salem, Y. Yang, and two anonymous reviewers for providing constructive comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant IOS-1557724 to J.C.d.R and M.D.H.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Agrawal AA, Kearney EE, Hastings AP, Ramsey TE (2012a) Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). J Chem Ecol 38:893–901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-012-0145-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Roode JC, Lopez Fernandez de Castillejo C, Faits T, Alizon S (2011a) Virulence evolution in response to anti-infection resistance: toxic food plants can select for virulent parasites of monarch butterflies. J Evol Biol 24:712–722. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02213.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar