Fatal Attraction: Ricinus communis Provides an Attractive but Risky Mating Site for Holotrichia parallela Beetles
- 96 Downloads
The castor bean, Ricinus communis L., is a non-host plant for the large black chafer, Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). In laboratory bioassays we found that this plant was no less attractive than the main host plant (peanut, Arachis hypogaea) and three food plant species: velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), the glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum), and the Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila). In field trapping experiments a Soxhlet extract of castor bean leaves caught more beetles than the optimal sex lure blend [(R)-(−)-linalool and (L)-isoleucine methyl ester blended in a ratio of 1:4], compared at equal doses (500 μl), and laboratory bioassays indicated that a castor bean plant could enhance the attractiveness of different blend ratios of sex lures. Olfactometer bioassays showed that males prefer volatiles emitted from different combinations of castor bean plant extracts and a signaling female over a female alone. In the presence of castor bean plants copulation rates of H. parallela were highest among all test environments both in laboratory bioassays (60%) and in field tests (70%). This study, combined with our previous observation of the feeding behavior of H. parallela adults on castor bean leaves, suggests that castor bean plants may provide an attractive but risky mating site for H. parallela beetles. The enhancement of male mate-location and copulation rate in the presence of castor bean plants can balance its paralytic effects on H. parallela after intake of potential toxins contained in its leaves.
KeywordsHolotrichia Castor plant Non-host plant Fatal attraction Risky mating site
We would like to thank ten undergraduate apprentices, Chao Chen, Qingbo Lü, Yüzhao Zuo, Zhixin Hao, Jiawei Fan, Huijie Fan, Tengyun Du, Guanghua Wei, Yali Tian, and Youhong Wang for their participation in insect rearing and bioassays. The authors gratefully acknowledge support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31471772). We would like to thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for providing linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
Conceptualization: GY ⋅ XG.
Data curation: WL ⋅ HZ.
Funding acquisition: GY.
Investigation: HZ ⋅ WL.
Methodology: HZ ⋅ QL ⋅ LY ⋅ DG ⋅ XT.
Project administration: GY.
Resources: HZ ⋅ WL.
Software: WL ⋅ HZ.
Writing – original draft: HZ ⋅ WL.
Writing – review & editing: HZ ⋅ WL.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Competing Financial Interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- Ju Q, Li X, Jiang XJ, Zhao ZQ, Jiang XG, Ni WL, Qu MJ (2014a) Characterization of female sex-pheromone in Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae) of Qingdao population and their application in the field. Acta Phytophy Sin 2:197–202. https://doi.org/10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2014.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ju Q, Li X, Jiang XJ, Zhao ZQ, Jiang YL, Qu MJ (2014b) Behavioral responses of three scarab beetles to host plant. Plant Prot 40:76–79. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0529-1542.2014.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li WZ, Yuan YH, Yuan GH, Luo MH, Guo XR (2010) Selection and feeding responses of Holotrichia parallela adults to the leaves of non-host plant Ricinus communis and several host plants. J Henan Agric Univ 4(447):438–442. https://doi.org/10.16445/j.cnki.1000-2340.2010.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Ju Q, Jiang XJ, Zhao ZQ, Chen QS, Qu MJ, Jiang XG, Lü JJ, Ni WL, Gu JZ, Chen ZD, Liu LF, Kang SL (2012) Controlling Holotrichia parallela in peanut fields by sex pheromone. Plant Prot 3:176–179. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0529-1542.2012.03.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luo ZX, Li KB, Cao YZ, Yin J, Liu CQ, Wang QL, Mi CH, Yang X, Wang ML (2010) A pilot study on Holotrichia parallela for field applications. Plant Prot 5:157–161. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0529-1542.2010.05.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shelton AM, Badenes-Pérez FR (2006) Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest management. Annu Rev Entomol 51:285–308. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.150959 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun F, Lu JH (2006) Analysis of volatiles and wound-induced volatiles component of Ricinus communis. Sci Silvae Sin 9:140–142. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2006.09.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sun F, Lu JH, Li L, Zhao KJ (2008) Analysis of volatile component of Ulmus pumila by solid phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS. J Northeast Forest Univ 36:55–57. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-5382.2008.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Li YH, Xu ST, Ai TT, Cheng WB, An YN, Zhao YD (2013) Control technology against scarabs in hazelnut park on sandland. Prot For Sci Technol 119(57):41–43. https://doi.org/10.13601/j.issn.1005-5215.2013.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yue JC (2013) Control effect of several insecticides on the adults of Madadera sp. Yunnan Agric Sci Technol 6:45–47. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-0488.2013.06.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang YL, Yuan YH, Yuan GH, Guo XR, Luo MH (2006) A study on the attraction of Holotrichia oblita (Fadermann) to castor leaves. J Henan Agric Univ 40:53–57. https://doi.org/10.16445/j.cnki.1000-2340.2006.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar