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Table 1 The percentage of hydrocarbons and oleic acid wax esters detected in four major glands in three different age groups of honey bees

From: Is the Salivary Gland Associated with Honey Bee Recognition Compounds in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)?

  Cephalic salivary gland Thoracic salivary Dufour’s gland Mandibular gland Cuticular surface (Kather et al. 2011)
Peak # Hydrocarbon abbreviation Ret time Day 0 Day 10 Day 30 Day0 Day 10 Day 30 Day 0 Day 10 Day 30 Day 0 Day 10 Day 30 Day 0 Day 10 Day 20
1 C19:1 6.8 2 ± 1 t t
2 n-C19 6.9 2 ± 1 t t
3 C21:1 8.2 t t 1 ± 1
4 n-C21 8.4 16 ± 5 4 ± 3 t 6.9 ± 5.4 4.8 ± 2.6 10 ± 3.8 2.5 ± 2.1
5 C23:1 10.2 9 ± 3 3 ± 2 1 ± 1 5.4 ± 3.9 0.9 ± 0.8 0.9 ± 1.1 5 ± 1.9
6 n-C23 10.6 29 ± 9 7 ± 3 16 ± 9 18 ± 15 6.7 ± 4.2 4 ± 3.3. 15 ± 8.2 19 ± 6.7 8.6 ± 5.3 25 ± 6.3
7 C23-Me3 11.6 2.4 ± 4.4
8 C25:2 12.5 3 ± 1 t t
9 C25:1 12.8 4 ± 2 4 ± 2 1 ± 1 5.8 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 1.6
10 n-C25 13.2 6 ± 3 6 ± 3 18 ± 9 100 97 ± 10 100 19 ± 14 20 ± 12 13 ± 4.7 13 ± 5.1 63 ± 19 81 ± 14 10 ± 1.7 9.3 ± 3.4 18 ± 3.4
11 C25 Me9, 11, 13 13.6 2 ± 2 t t 5.3 ± 7.1 3.3 ± 2.8 2.8 ± 0.8 0.4 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.4
12 C27:2 15.3 t t t 0.2 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.5
13 C27:1 15.7 t 2 ± 1 1 ± 1 t 0.1 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.5
14 n-C27 16.1 5 ± 2 6 ± 3 7 ± 5 3 ± 10 15 ± 9.5 19 ± 7 17 ± 4.8 13 ± 3.3 15 ± 7.4 19 ± 14 27 ± 3.5 19 ± 4.1 16 ± 4.4
15 C27 Me9, 11, 13 16.6 5 ± 1 1 ± 0 t 8.1 ± 8.4   12 ± 3.9 14 ± 3.7 1.8 ± 0.9 0.7 ± 0.5
16 C27-Me3 17.1 3.3 ± 2.6   
17 C29:1 18.2 t 2 ± 1 1 ± 1 0.4 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 0.9 2 ± 1
18 n-C29 18.4 1 ± 1 3 ± 2 2 ± 2 8.2 ± 6.6 23 ± 7 21 ± 5 5.6 ± 3 4.8 ± 2.6 11 ± 2.1 5.8 ± 2.4
19 C29 Me9, 11, 13 18.6 3 ± 1 t t 7.4 ± 8.5 9.7 ± 2.9 8.8 ± 3.0 1.2 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 1.5
20 C31:1 (2 isomers) 19.4 2 ± 2 11 ± 6 2 ± 2 1.8 ± 1.9 4.1 ± 4 2.4 ± 5.3 2.8 ± 2.1 1.3 ± 2.6 19 ± 5.9 8.4 ± 2.6
21 n-C31 19.6 t 2 ± 1 1 ± 2 3 ± 5.4 18 ± 6 17 ± 6 1.6 ± 1.7 0.8 ± 1.2 6.3 ± 2.1 2.3 ± 1.1
22 C31 Me9, 11, 13 19.7 t 1 ± 3 t 2.9 ± 3.5 3.4 ± 1.4 3.1 ± 1.3 0.1 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.3
23 C33:1 (3 isomers) 20.3 2 ± 3 19 ± 11 2 ± 2 0.7 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 3.8 1.1 ± 1.2 22 ± 14 1.1 ± 2.6 18 ± 10 5.5 ± 3.3
24 n-C33 20.4 1.4 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 1.5 0.1 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.3
25 C33-Me9, 11, 13 20.5 0.9 ± 1.5 0.4 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.4
26 Oleic acid octadecyl ester 21.7 2 ± 3 7 ± 8 13 ± 9 0.1 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 0.6
27 Oleic acid eicosyl ester 22.3 2 ± 4 15 ± 15 28 ± 13 0.7 ± 1.5 0.9 ± 1 8.3 ± 3.9
28 Oleic acid tetracosyl ester 23.0 3 ± 7 3 ± 2 3 ± 1
29 Unidentified wax ester 23.5 t t 2 ± 2 0.6 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.7
30 Unidentified wax ester 23.9 t t 2 ± 1 0.9 ± 1 2.2 ± 0.9
  1. Compounds are ordered by retention time (Ret). Each value is the average (±SD) of between 14 and 20 samples per age/task group. These are compared with the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles extracted from whole body washes of between 33 to 44 workers of each age/task group (Kather et al. 2011). All values greater than 10% are presented in bold for clarity, t = trace proportion, i.e. detectable but too small to be reliably integrated