Intrathalline Metabolite Profiles in the Lichen Argopsis friesiana Shape Gastropod Grazing Patterns
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Lichen-gastropod interactions generally focus on the potential deterrent or toxic role of secondary metabolites. To better understand lichen-gastropod interactions, a controlled feeding experiment was designed to identify the parts of the lichen Argopsis friesiana consumed by the Subantarctic land snail Notodiscus hookeri. Besides profiling secondary metabolites in various lichen parts (apothecia, cephalodia, phyllocladia and fungal axis of the pseudopodetium), we investigated potentially beneficial resources that snails can utilize from the lichen (carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides and total nitrogen). Notodiscus hookeri preferred cephalodia and algal layers, which had high contents of carbohydrates, nitrogen, or both. Apothecia were avoided, perhaps due to their low contents of sugars and polyols. Although pseudopodetia were characterized by high content of arabitol, they were also rich in medullary secondary compounds, which may explain why they were not consumed. Thus, the balance between nutrients (particularly nitrogen and polyols) and secondary metabolites appears to play a key role in the feeding preferences of this snail.
KeywordsHerbivory Chemical ecology Snail Lichen-gastropod interactions Subantarctic islands Stereocaulaceae Notodiscus hookeri
Aurélie BERNARD, Corentin DAUGAN and Nathalie MARNET are acknowledged for their technical assistance. The authors are also indebted to David RONDEAU for giving access to DART-HRMS (DReAM platform, IETR) and Arnaud BONDON and Sandrine POTTIER (PRISM, BioGenOuest) for NMR material access. This work used analytical facilities of the P2M2 platform for primary metabolites (amino acids and carbohydrates) analyses thanks to Alain BOUCHEREAU. The field trip to the Subantarctic was funded by l’Institut Polaire Paul-Émile Victor, Plouzané, France (IPEV, programme 136). Aude BOUTET and Julien TOMMASINO are warmly thanked for their help during the fieldwork. Prof. Yngvar GAUSLAA is warmly acknowledged for his useful comments and discussions about this manuscript.
This research was funded by the French Polar Institute (Institut Polaire Paul-Émile Victor) within the context of the program 136 “SUBANTECO”. Collecting and transport of specimens of the species Notodiscus hookeri were authorized by the Prefect of Ille-et-Vilaine, France, licence N°35–120 delivered in October 2015.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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