Diploid Male Production Results in Queen Death in the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona depilis
- 422 Downloads
As in most Hymenoptera, the eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini) have a complementary sex determination (CSD) system. When a queen makes a “matched mating” with a male that shares a CSD allele with her, half of their diploid offspring are diploid males rather than females. Matched mating imposes a cost, since diploid male production reduces the colony workforce. Hence, adaptations preventing the occurrence or attenuating its effects are likely to arise. Here we provide clear evidence that in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis, the emergence of diploid males induces queen death, and this usually occurs within 10–20 days of the emergence of diploid male offspring from their pupae. Queens that have not made a matched mating die when introduced into a colony in which diploid males are emerging. This shows that the adult diploid males, and not the queen that has made a matched mating herself, are the proximate cause of queen death. Analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of adult haploid and diploid males shows six compounds with significant differences. Moreover, the diploid and haploid males only acquire distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profiles 10 days after emergence. Our data shows that the timing of queen death occurs when the cuticular hydrocarbons of haploid and diploid males differ significantly, suggesting that these chemical differences could be used as cues or signals to trigger queen death.
KeywordsSex determination Diploid male load Queen execution Chemical recognition
The authors thank Christoph Grüeter for valuable comments on the manuscript. The study was financially supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP (AVN grant 2012/11144-0, FSN grant 2015/25301-9), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (AVN grant 229944/2013-2; RCO grant 238127/2012-5; DAA grant 470372/2013-3) and PNPD/CAPES to DAA.
- Bego LR (1982) On social regulation in Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona) postica Latreille, with special reference to male production cycles (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae). Bolm Zool Univ S Paulo 7:181–196Google Scholar
- Camargo CA (1976) Determinação do sexo e controle de reprodução em Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Dissertation, University of Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
- Cameron EC, Franck P, Oldroyd BP (2004) Genetic structure of nest aggregations and drone congregations of the southeast Asian stingless bee Trigona collina. Mol Ecol 13:2357–2364. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02194.x
- dos Santos CF, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, Arias MC (2016) Relatedness and dispersal distance of eusocial bee males on mating swarms. Entomol Sci 19(3):245–254Google Scholar
- Falcón T, Ferreira-Caliman MJ, Nunes FMF, Tanaka ÉD, do Nascimento FS, MMG B (2014) Exoskeleton formation in Apis mellifera: Cuticular hydrocarbons profiles and expression of desaturase and elongase genes during pupal and adult development. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 50:68–81. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2014.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Francisco FO, Brito RM, Santiago LR, Gonçalves PHP, Pioker FC, Domingues-Yamada AMT, Arias MC (2011) Isolation and characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the stingless bee Plebeia remota (Apidae: Meliponini). Conserv Genet Resour 3:417–419. doi: 10.1007/s12686-010-9369-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- van Wilgenburg E, Driessen G, Beukeboom LW (2006) Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an “unintelligent” design. Front Zool 3. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-3-1