We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species.
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This research was funded by the Ohio Plant Biotechnology Consortium, the USDA APHIS Accelerated Emerald Ash Borer Research Initiative, state and federal funds appropriated to The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, and Wright State University. We thank Bailey’s Nursery, Inc. of St. Paul, MN, USA and Jennifer Koch, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Delaware, OH, USA for donating the ash trees used in the study. We thank Deah Lieurance for technical assistance.
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Cipollini, D., Wang, Q., Whitehill, J.G.A. et al. Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer. J Chem Ecol 37, 450–459 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-011-9954-z
- Defense proteins
- Emerald Ash Borer
- Constitutive resistance