Effect of Chirality, Release Rate, and Host Volatiles on Response of Tetropium fuscum (F.), Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby, and Tetropium castaneum (L.) to the Aggregation Pheromone, Fuscumol
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The male-produced aggregation pheromones of Tetropium fuscum (F.) and T. cinnamopterum Kirby were identified as (2S,5E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadienol by chemical analysis, synthesis, electronantennography, and field trapping; the compound is here renamed “fuscumol”. The effect of fuscumol chirality, alone or with host volatiles, and fuscumol release rate on Tetropium spp. was tested in field-trapping experiments in Nova Scotia and Poland. Both (S)-fuscumol and racemic fuscumol synergized trap catches of male and female T. fuscum, T. cinnamopterum, and T. castaneum (L.) when combined with a blend of host monoterpenes and ethanol. Without added host volatiles, fuscumol was either unattractive (in Nova Scotia) or only slightly so (in Poland). (R)-Fuscumol, alone or in combination with host volatiles, did not elicit increases in trap capture of any Tetropium species, relative to the controls. Fuscumol synergized attraction of both sexes to host volatiles, thus indicating it acts as an aggregation pheromone. Sex ratio was often female-biased in traps baited with fuscumol plus host volatiles, and was either unbiased or male-biased in traps with host volatiles alone. In traps with host volatiles and racemic fuscumol, mean catches of Tetropium species were unaffected by fuscumol release rates ranging from 1 to 32 mg/d. The attraction of three different Tetropium species to the combination of (S)-fuscumol and host volatiles suggests that cross-attraction may occur where these species are sympatric, and that reproductive isolation possibly occurs via differences in close-range cues. These results have practical applications for survey and monitoring of T. fuscum, a European species established in Nova Scotia since at least 1980, and for early detection of T. castaneum, a European species not presently established in North America.
Key WordsTetropium fuscum Tetropium castaneum Tetropium cinnamopterum Pheromone Chirality Release rate Aggregation Coleoptera Cerambycidae Spondylidinae (S)-Fuscumol Cross-attraction
We thank the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Natural Resources Canada—Canadian Forest Service (Forest Invasive Alien Species Fund), and (through the auspices of Spray Efficacy Research Group International) Forest Protection Limited (NB), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and the Nova Scotia Ministry of Natural Resources for generous funding and in-kind support. We thank M. Rhainds, D. Pureswaran, G. LeClair, C. Simpson and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript, H. Mills for help with synthetic chemistry, M. Lavigne for help with graphics, J. Price, N. Brawn, K. Burgess, A. Doane, B. Guscott, N. Harn, S. Laity, W. MacKay, K. O’Leary, A. Papageorgiou, S. Richards, A. Sharpe, D. Seaboyer, K. Sućko, and T. Walsh for technical assistance, L. Hanks, E. Lacey, J. Millar, and A. Ray for advice, and N. Carter, D. Davies, E. Hurley, and T. Scarr for support. All experiments reported here comply with the laws of Canada.
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