The timing and duration of approaches by male peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa Say (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to commercial pheromone dispensers placed singly or at high density in peach orchards was determined by using field-deployed video cameras and digital video recorders. Cameras were trained on one dispenser, and one standard lure was placed in a peach orchard, and on 12 dispensers in a separate orchard where dispensers for mating disruption had been placed at 371 per hectare. Male moth approaches were video recorded at the peak of peachtree borer annual flight, from 13 to 18 August 2009. The mean approach timing (h:min:sec±SD) during the study period was 11:33:12 ± 00:46:43, 11:43:52 ± 00:45:58, and 11:41:21 ± 00:45:54 AM with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. Day-to-day variability in approach timings suggested that there were no biologically significant differences among treatments. The frequency distribution of approach durations varied among treatments, as the high-density dispensers had mostly short approaches, while the distribution of approaches to the single dispenser and lure was wider. The median (interquartile range) approach duration was 3 (2–4), 1 (1–2), and 4 (2–6) seconds with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. The relative rank of median approach durations was constant throughout the period, indicating differences among treatments. This study showed that the presence of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption did not cause an advancement of peachtree borer diel rhythm of response. Shorter approaches to dispensers placed at high density than singly suggest that dispenser retentiveness is not constant with peachtree borer, which may bias estimates of disruption activity as a function of dispenser density.
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The authors thank K. Buhrer, M. Haas, J. Jones, and P. McGhee for technical assistance, and grower-cooperators A. and R. Bjorge for access to their orchards. This work was funded in part by grants from EPA-American Farmland Trust, Project GREEEN, and Pacific Biocontrol.
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Teixeira, L.A.F., Grieshop, M.J. & Gut, L.J. Effect of Pheromone Dispenser Density on Timing and Duration of Approaches by Peachtree Borer. J Chem Ecol 36, 1148–1154 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-010-9853-8
- Synanthedon exitiosa
- Mating disruption
- Competitive attraction
- Retention time