Volatiles were extracted from rice plants of various growth stages with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify attractants that cause invasion of the rice leaf bug Trigonotylus caelestialium (Kirkaldy) into paddy fields. The composition of volatile blends produced by rice plants changed with rice development. In addition, volatile blend compositions differed between the panicles and the stems and leaves. The relative geranyl acetone content was high in all plant structures analyzed. In volatiles from whole plants in the fourth-leaf stage and panicles in the full-ripe stage, the relative content of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) was higher than that found in other rice plant structures. In contrast, relative terpene levels emitted from whole plants in the panicle-formation stage and by panicles and stems and leaves in the flowering stage were higher than those of other rice plant structures. However, the type of terpenes found differed between the panicles and the stems and leaves. Relative levels of β-caryophyllene in whole plants in the panicle-formation stage and panicles in the flowering stage were much higher than that in stems and leaves in the flowering stage. Our previous studies demonstrated that the odor from whole plants in the panicle-formation stage and panicles in the flowering stage is attractive to rice leaf bugs. Here, the attractiveness of β-caryophyllene to adult bugs was investigated in olfactometer assays. Adult females were attracted to β-caryophyllene at a concentration of 0.001%, which is approximately equivalent to the concentration produced by flowering rice panicles. However, β-caryophyllene also was present in the odor of whole plants in the fourth-leaf stage and in stems and leaves in the flowering stage. Furthermore, the amounts of this compound emitted from these structures were similar. Therefore, we suggest that the relative abundance of this compound in a volatile blend is important for attractance of the bugs.
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We wish to thank Zeon Co. and Nippon Terpene Chemicals Inc. for kindly supplying authentic compounds. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science.
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Fujii, T., Hori, M. & Matsuda, K. Attractants for Rice Leaf Bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium (Kirkaldy), are Emitted from Flowering Rice Panicles. J Chem Ecol 36, 999–1005 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-010-9839-6