Gilbert (1976) suggested that male-contributed odors of mated females of Heliconius erato could enforce monogamy. We investigated the pheromone system of a relative, Heliconius melpomene, using chemical analysis, behavioral experiments, and feeding experiments with labeled biosynthetic pheromone precursors. The abdominal scent glands of males contained a complex odor bouquet, consisting of the volatile compound (E)-β-ocimene together with some trace components and a less volatile matrix made up predominately of esters of common C16- and C18-fatty acids with the alcohols ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol. This bouquet is formed during the first days after eclosion, and transferred during copulation to the females. Virgin female scent glands do not contain these compounds. The transfer of ocimene and the esters was shown by analysis of butterflies of both sexes before and after copulation. Additional proof was obtained by males fed with labeled D-13C6– glucose. They produced 13C-labeled ocimene and transferred it to females during copulation. Behavioral tests with ocimene applied to unmated females showed its repellency to males. The esters did not show such activity, but they moderated the evaporation rate of ocimene. Our investigation showed that β-ocimene is an antiaphrodisiac pheromone of H. melpomene.
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We thank A. Wartenberg, R. Watkins, S. Marout, and K. Busby for assisting rearing butterflies; the United States Department of Agriculture for import and rearing permits, and Costa Rica’s Ministerio del Ambiente y Energía for collection and exportation permits. This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the University of Texas at Austin graduate program in Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. This material is also based on work supported by the National Science Foundation and the Office of International Science and Engineering under grant No 0608167. Austin facilities were developed through grants from NSF and matching support from UT Austin to LEG.
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Schulz, S., Estrada, C., Yildizhan, S. et al. An Antiaphrodisiac in Heliconius melpomene Butterflies. J Chem Ecol 34, 82–93 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-007-9393-z
- Sperm competition
- Fatty acid esters
- Labeled pheromone
- Pheromone biosynthesis