Inflorescence scent samples from nine populations of dioecious Silene otites, a plant pollinated by moths and mosquitoes, were collected by dynamic headspace extraction. Sixty-three scent samples were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Out of 38 found, 35 compounds were identified, most of which were monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives, and benzenoids. Phenyl acetaldehyde was the most dominant compound in the majority of samples. The variability in scent composition was high, and population and sex differences were found. Nevertheless, wind tunnel experiments proved similar attraction of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes to the inflorescence odor of S. otites of different populations, indicating that different blends are similarly attractive to mosquitoes. The electrophysiological responses of mosquitoes to the 12 most common and abundant odor compounds of S. otites differed. Linalool oxide (furanoid) and linalool evoked the strongest responses in male and female mosquitoes, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was strongly active in females. Medium responses were evoked in males by (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, in females by benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate, and in both sexes by lilac aldehyde, lilac alcohol, and linalool oxide (pyranoid).
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The authors thank Sigrid Liede-Schumann for supporting this study and Taina Witt who gave valuable comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. Karlheinz Seifert and Jette Knudsen provided authentic standard compounds. Rainer Krug and Deinlein Heike helped in the cultivation of the plants. The comments of Monika Hilker and two anonymous referees were especially helpful for the improvement of the manuscript. Umma Salma Jhumur was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG Research Training Group 678).
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Jhumur, U.S., Dötterl, S. & Jürgens, A. Floral Odors of Silene otites: Their Variability and Attractiveness to Mosquitoes. J Chem Ecol 34, 14 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-007-9392-0
- Silene otites
- Flower odor variability
- Wind tunnel bioassays
- Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus
- Nectar host plant