Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
The dish pack method, which measures growth inhibition or promotion effects of volatile compounds on germinating seeds, was applied to measure the antifungal effects of 52 dried samples of spices and herbs against a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Black zira showed the strongest effect, followed by cumin and cardamom. Headspace sampling and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of black zira identified seven volatile compounds, γ-terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, β-pinene, α-pinene, cuminaldehyde, and myrcene. Among these, cuminaldehyde and p-cymene showed the strongest antifungal activities against F. oxysporum, suggesting roles in the antifungal activity of black zira. The same compounds also showed antifungal activities against another soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus, Verticillium dahliae, and foliar phytopathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria mali. The total activity calculated from the concentration of cuminaldehyde contained in black zira and its EC50 against F. oxysporum demonstrated that cuminaldehyde is the main antifungal compound detected in black zira.
KeywordsSpices Herbs Volatile compounds Bunium persicum Cuminaldehyde Headspace Dish pack method Antifungal activity Mycelial growth Total activity
This work was supported by a Research Fellowship of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan. We thank Ms. Pariasca for her critical reading of the manuscript.
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