Sex Pheromone of the Cranberry Root Grub Lichnanthe vulpina
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The cranberry root grub Lichnanthe vulpina (Hentz) (Coleoptera: Glaphyridae) is a pest of cranberries in Massachusetts, reducing yield and vine density. (Z)-7-Hexadecenol and (Z)-7-hexadecenal were identified from the female effluvia collection by gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The double-bond position was confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization. Both compounds were tested in the field, each alone and as blends of the two. Each compound alone captured males; however, (Z)-7-hexadecenol alone captured significantly more males than did (Z)-7-hexadecenal alone. The addition of varying amounts of (Z)-7-hexadecenal to (Z)-7-hexadecenol did not statistically affect male capture. Flight activity of the cranberry root grub may be monitored with traps baited with rubber septa containing 300 μg of (Z)-7-hexadecenol. A test of trap vane colors indicated that traps with green or black vanes maximized target male catch while minimizing nontarget catch of important cranberry pollinators.
Key words(Z)-7-Hexadecenol (Z)-7-Hexadecenal Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Electroantennogram Scarab beetle Glaphyridae
Financial support was provided by the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Association, the Cranberry Institute, and Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. We thank Pam Connor, Jessica Dunn, Revel Gilmore, and Jay O'Donnell of the UMASS Cranberry Experiment Station, East Wareham, MA, and Harald Abrahamsen of SUNY Cobleskill, Cobleskill, NY, for field assistance, and several cranberry growers for providing access to their premises.
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