# Strongly Exponentially Separated Linear Systems

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## Abstract

In the study of linear differential systems, an important concept is that of exponential separation. It is closely related to the concept of exponential dichotomy and has played a key role in the theory of Lyapunov exponents. Usually in the study of exponential separation, it is assumed that the coefficient matrix *A*(*t*) is bounded in norm. Our first aim here is to develop a theory of exponential separation which applies to unbounded systems. It turns that in order to have a reasonable theory it is necessary to add the assumption that the angle between the two separated subspaces is bounded below (note this follows automatically for bounded systems). Our second aim is to show that if a bounded linear Hamiltonian system is exponentially separated into two subspaces of the same dimension, then it must have an exponential dichotomy.

## Keywords

Exponential separation Exponential dichotomy Symplectic matrices Iwasawa decomposition## Mathematics Subject Classification

34D05 34C25## References

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