Skip to main content

Meta-analysis of Vocational Skills Intervention in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Abstract

In order to propose intervention methods that can effectively improve the vocational skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, meta-analysis is conducted on 16 research articles in the past twenty years focusing on single-type subjects. The intervention Tau-U effect values of related studies are calculated, and adjustment analysis is made on the subjects’ characteristics, intervention types, intervention methods, intervention environment, dependent variables and the degree of matching between intervention objectives and subject characteristics. The results show that the intervention effect of vocational skills of ASD adolescents is overall significant. In terms of participant characteristics, the intervention effect of high- or medium-functioning ASD adolescents was better than that of low-functioning ASD adolescents. The analysis of intervention types showed statistically significant differences, among which the audio cueing method had the strongest intervention effect, and the frequency of mobile device teaching and behavioral skills training increased significantly. The effect of multi-component interventions is the same as that of single interventions, and it shows a good trend in the past five years and has been widely employed. Vocational skill interventions promote the employment of over 10 million persons with ASD in China, which not only helps achieve their economic independence but also is an important means to improve the social happiness index.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. There are three main employment ways of ASD: sheltered employment, supportive employment and competitive employment.

References

  • Allen, K. D., Burke, R. V., Howard, M. R., Wallace, D. P., & Bowen, S. L. (2012). Use of audio cuing to expand employment opportunities for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(11), 2410–2419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1519-7

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allen, K. D., Wallace, D. P., Greene, D. J., Bowen, S. L., & Burke, R. V. (2010a). Community-Based Vocational Instruction Using Videotaped Modeling for Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders Performing in Air-Inflated Mascots. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(3), 186–192. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357610377318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allen, K. D., Wallace, D. P., Greene, D. J., Bowen, S. L., & Burke, R. V. (2010b). Use of video modeling to teach vocational skills to adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(3), 339–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( 5th ed. )http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/AutismSpectrumDis⁃orderFactSheet.pdf

  • Bennett, K. D., & Dukes, C. (2013). Employment Instruction for Secondary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(1), 67–75. <Go to ISI>://WOS:000315246200006

  • Bennett, K. D., Ramasamy, R., & Honsberger, T. (2013a). The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on Teaching Clerical Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 585–593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1597-6

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, K. D., Ramasamy, R., & Honsberger, T. (2013b). Further Examination of Covert Audio Coaching on Improving Employment Skills among Secondary Students with Autism. Journal of Behavioral Education, 22(2), 103–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-013-9168-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bereznak, S., Ayres, K. M., Mechling, L. C., & Alexander, J. L. (2012). Video Self-Prompting and Mobile Technology to Increase Daily Living and Vocational Independence for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24(3), 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-012-9270-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boles, M., Ganz, J., Hagan-Burke, S., Hong, E. R., Neely, L. C., Davis, J. L., & Zhang, D. (2019). Effective Interventions in Teaching Employment Skills to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Single-Case Meta-analysis. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 6(2), 200–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00163-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • CDC. (2018). Data & statistics on autism spectrum disorder. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data/

  • Chen, J. L., Leader, G., Sung, C., & Leahy, M. (2015). Trends in Employment for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Research Literature. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(2), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-014-0041-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • China.org.cn. (2019). Report on the development of Autism education and rehabilitation industry in China iii. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from http://www.china.org.cn/chinese/2019-04/12/content_74673984.htm

  • Eaves, L. C., & Ho, H. H. (2008). Young adult outcome of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(4), 739–747. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0441-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • English, D. L., Gounden, S., Dagher, R. E., Chan, S. F., Furlonger, B. E., Anderson, A., & Moore, D. W. (2017). Effects of video modeling with video feedback on vocational skills of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 20(8), 511–524.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fong, C. J., Taylor, J., Berdyyeva, A., McClelland, A. M., Murphy, K. M., & Westbrook, J. D. (2021). Interventions for improving employment outcomes for persons with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review update. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 17(3), Article e1185. https://doi.org/10.1002/cl2.1185

  • Ganz, J. B., Earles-Vollrath, T. L., & Cook, K. E. (2011). A visually based intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 8–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/004005991104300601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gottlieb, A., Myhill, W., & Blanck, P. (2010). Employment of People with Disabilities. International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation.

  • Grob, C. M., Lerman, D. C., Langlinais, C. A., & Villante, N. K. (2019). Assessing and teaching job-related social skills to adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 52(1), 150–172. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.503

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hendricks, D. (2010). Employment and adults with autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and strategies for success. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 32(2), 125–134. https://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-2010-0502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hillier, A., Campbell, H., Mastriani, K., Izzo, M. V., Kool-Tucker, A. K., Cherry, L., & Beversdorf, D. Q. (2007). Two-year evaluation of a vocational support program for adults on the autism spectrum. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 30(1), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/08857288070300010501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, X., & Jiang, Q. (2016). The Introduction and Implications to British Supported Internshipfor 16 - 24 Year-Old Disabled Young People. Journal of Modern Special Education( Academic), (06), 33–40.

  • Hutchinson, V. D., Rehfeldt, R. A., Hertel, I., & Root, W. B. (2019). Exploring the Efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Interview Skills to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 3(4), 450–456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kellems, R. O., & Morningstar, M. E. (2012). Using Video Modeling Delivered Through iPods to Teach Vocational Tasks to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Career Development Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 35(3), 155–167. https://doi.org/10.1177/2165143412443082

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kratochwill, T. R., Hitchcock, J., Horner, R. H., Levin, J. R., Odom, S. L., Rindskopf, D. M., & Shadish, W. R. (2010). Single-case designs technical documentation. Retrieved from What Works Clearinghouse website: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/wwc_scd.pdf

  • Kratochwill, T. R., Hitchcock, J. H., Horner, R. H., Levin, J. R., Odom, S. L., Rindskopf, D. M., & Shadish, W. R. (2013). Single-Case Intervention Research Design Standards. Remedial and Special Education, 34(1), 26–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932512452794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laghi, F., & Trimarco, B. (2020). Individual planning starts at school. Tools and practices promoting autonomy and supporting transition to work for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Annali Dell Istituto Superiore Di Sanita, 56(2), 222–229. https://doi.org/10.4415/ann_20_02_12

  • Lattimore, L. P., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2009). Rapid training of a community job skill to nonvocal adults with autism: an extension of intensive teaching. Behavior analysis in practice, 2(1), 34–42. <Go to ISI>://MEDLINE:22477694

  • Lerman, D. C., White, B., Grob, C., & Laudont, C. (2017). A Clinic-Based Assessment for Evaluating Job-Related Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10(4), 323–336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-017-0177-9

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Li, L. (2021). A case study of comprehensive intervention for children with autism. New Curriculum Research, (S1), 12–14.

  • Li, Y., Tang, Y., & Xu, S. (2019). Factors Influencing Employment in Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Overseas Studies in Recent 50 Years. Journal of Suihua University, 39(07), 68–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, K. P. Y., Wong, D., Chung, A. C. Y., Kwok, N., Lam, M. K. Y., Yuen, C. M. C., & Kwan, A. C. S. (2013). Effectiveness of a Workplace Training Programme in Improving Social, Communication and Emotional Skills for Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong - A Pilot Study. Occupational Therapy International, 20(4), 198–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/oti.1356

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maggin, D. M., Briesch, A. M., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2013). An Application of the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for Evaluating Single-Subject Research: Synthesis of the Self-Management Literature Base. Remedial and Special Education, 34(1), 44–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932511435176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mechling, L. C., & Savidge, E. J. (2011). Using a Personal Digital Assistant to Increase Completion of Novel Tasks and Independent Transitioning by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 687–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1088-6

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan, C. A., & Wine, B. (2018). Evaluation of Behavior Skills Training for Teaching Work Skills to a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Education and Treatment of Children, 41(2), 223–232. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2018.0009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ninci, J., Neely, L. C., Hong, E. R., Boles, M. B., Gilliland, W. D., Ganz, J. B., & Vannest, K. J. (2015). Meta-analysis of Single-Case Research on Teaching Functional Living Skills to Individuals with ASD. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(2), 184–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-014-0046-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nuernberger, J. E., Ringdahl, J. E., Vargo, K. K., Crumpecker, A. C., & Gunnarsson, K. F. (2013). Using a behavioral skills training package to teach conversation skills to young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(2), 411–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.09.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palmen, A., Didden, R., & Arts, M. (2008). Improving question asking in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders - Effectiveness of small-group training. Autism, 12(1), 83–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361307085265

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., Davis, J. L., & Sauber, S. B. (2011). Combining Nonoverlap and Trend for Single-Case Research: MAI-U. Behavior Therapy, 42(2), 284–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2010.08.006

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Poche, C., Brouwer, R., & Swearingen, M. (1981). Teaching Self-Protection to Young-Children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(2), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1981.14-169

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2010). Social Skills Interventions for Individuals with Autism: Evaluation for Evidence-Based Practices within a Best Evidence Synthesis Framework. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 149–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0842-0

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosales, R., & Whitlow, H. (2019). A component analysis of job interview training for young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral Interventions, 34(2), 147–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaller, J., & Yang, N. K. (2005). Competitive employment for people with autism: Correlates of successful closure in competitive and supported employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 49(1), 4–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/00343552050490010201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Strickland, D. C., Coles, C. D., Southern, L. B. J. J., & o. A. (2013). JobTIPS: A Transition to Employment Program for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2472–2483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, J. L., Smith, L. E., & Mailick, M. R. (2014). Engagement in Vocational Activities Promotes Behavioral Development for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1447–1460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-2010-9

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Van Laarhoven, T., Carreon, A., Bonneau, W., & Lagerhausen, A. (2018). Comparing Mobile Technologies for Teaching Vocational Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Intellectual Disabilities Using Universally-Designed Prompting Systems. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(7), 2516–2529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3512-2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vannest, K. J., Parker, R.I., Gonen, O., & Adiguzel, T. (2016). Single Case Research: web based calculators for SCR analysis. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University. http://singlecaseresearch.org/calculators/tau-u

  • Wang, C., & Chen, J. (2021). A Review of Behavioral Skills Training to ImproveVocational Skills of Individuals withAutism Spectrum Disorder. Chinese Journal of Special Education, (09), 40–46.

  • Wang, J., Qin, Y.-q., & Zhu, X.-l. (2018). A Summary of Intervention Methods of Autism in Mainland China. Journal of Nanchang Normal University, 39(01), 66–69+80.

  • Watkins, L., O’Reilly, M., Kuhn, M., Gevarter, C., Lancioni, G. E., Sigafoos, J., & Lang, R. (2015). A Review of Peer-Mediated Social Interaction Interventions for Students with Autism in Inclusive Settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(4), 1070–1083. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2264-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wen, H., & Guo, D. (2014). Autistic Families in China (1 ed.). Huaxia Publishing House.

  • Xu, J. (1998). The Ready-Mode and the Supported-Mode of Vocational Education for People eith Disability. Chinese Journal of Special Education, (02), 34–38.

  • Zeng, F. (2006). An Investigation on Needs of Families with Intellectually Disabled Adult Child in Shanghai Chinese Journal of Special Education, (09), 21–25.

  • Zhang, L. (2014). Exploring employment services for people with intellectual disabilities [Master's thesis, Northwest University]. https://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbname=CMFD201401&filename=1014156095.nh

  • Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., He, X., & Li, D. (2021). Application of Video Modeling Teaching in Vocational Skills Trainingof People With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Modern Special Education, (04), 75–80.

  • Zhao, M., Liu, C., Li, X., & Chen, B. (2021). A Case Study on Training Resource Room Teachers With Behavioral Skills Training Program: Take Teaching ChildrenWith Autism to Express Needs to Their Peers as an Example. Journal of Modern Special Education, (02), 34–40.

Download references

Funding

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number 51778516.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kun Zhou.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

This study did not involve human or non-human participation and therefore, ethical approval was not required.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not obtained because this study did not involve human participants.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhou, K., Ma, S., Gu, Z. et al. Meta-analysis of Vocational Skills Intervention in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Dev Phys Disabil (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-022-09867-4

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-022-09867-4

Keywords

  • Autism
  • Vocational skills
  • Special education
  • Meta-analysis