Skip to main content

Behavioral Safety Assessment and Intervention among Residential Care Providers of Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Abstract

Many persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at risk for injury and physical harm due to unsafe environmental conditions. The present study addressed safety practices among care providers responsible for preventing access to hazardous materials among residential students living in two group homes. In a multiple baseline across settings design, the care providers were first exposed to visual cues intended to prompt access-prevention followed by visual cuing combined with graphic feedback. Care providers in one of the group homes demonstrated a high level of safety practices during baseline which continued throughout both intervention phases. In the second group home, a lower level of safety practices in baseline increased during the visual cuing intervention and remained stable with the addition of graphic feedback. The study demonstrates the contribution of behavioral assessment and intervention toward training and performance management of safety practices by residential care providers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21, 3–29. https://doi.org/10.1300/J075v21n01_02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Austin, J., Hatfield, D. B., Grindle, A. C., & Bailey, J. S. (1993). Increasing recycling in office environments: The effects of specific informative cues. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 247–253. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1993.26-247.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Babcock, R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Sanderson, M., & Scibak, J. (1992). Increasing nurses’ use of feedback to promote infection-control practices in a head-injury treatment center. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(3), 621–627. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1992.25-62.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Balcazar, F., Hopkins, B. L., & Suarez, Y. (1985). A critical objective review of performance feedback. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 7, 65–89. https://doi.org/10.1300/J075v07n03_05.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Buckley, J., Fountain, J., Meuse, S., Whelan, C., Maguire, H., Harper, J. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2020). Performance improvement of care providers in a child services setting: Effects of an incentive-based negative reinforcement intervention on data recording. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 42, 125–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Casella, S. E., Wilder, D. A., Neidert, P., Rey, C., Compton, M., & Chong, I. (2010). The effects of response effort on safe performance by therapists at an autism treatment facility. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(4), 729–734. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2010.43-729.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Cavalari, R. N. S., & Romanczyk, R. G. (2012). Caregiver perspectives on unintentional injury risk in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(6), 632–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2011.07.013.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Cox, C. D., Cox, B. S., & Cox, B. J. (2005). Long term benefits of prompts to use safety belts among drivers exiting senior communities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(4), 533–536. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2000.33-635.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Devries, J., Burnette, M., & Redmon, W. (1991). AIDS prevention: Improving nurses’ compliance with glove wearing through performance feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 705–711. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.24-705.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. DiGennaro Reed, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers’ implementation inyegrity and students’ inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior analysis, 40, 447–461. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.40-447.

  11. DiGennaro Reed, F. D., Hirst, J. M., & Howard, V. J. (2013). Empirically supported staff selection, training, and management strategies. In D. D. Reed, F. D. DiGennaro Reed, & J. K. Luiselli (Eds.), Handbook of crisis intervention and developmental disabilities (pp. 71–85). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6531-7_5.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  12. Ditzian, K., Wilder, D. A., King, A., & Tanz, J. (2015). An evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist—Human Services to assess an employee performance problem in a center-based autism treatment facility. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48(1), 199–203. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.171.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Fritz, J. N., Dupuis, D. L., Wu, W., Neal, A. E., Rettig, L. A., & Lastrapes, R. E. (2017). Evaluating increased effort for item disposal to improve recycling at a university. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50(4), 825–829. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.405.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Geller, E. S. (2005). Behavior-based safety and occupational risk management. Behavior Modification, 29(3), 539–561. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445504273287.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Gravina, N., & Matey, N. (2020). Safety and injury prevention. In J. K. Luiselli, R. M. Gardner, F. L. Bird, & H, Maguire (Eds.), Organizational behavior management (OBM) in intellectual and developmental disabilities. Routledge/Taylor & Francis, in press.

  16. Houmanfar, R. (2013). Performance feedback: From component analysis to application [editorial]. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 33(2), 85–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2013.787002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Jason, L. A., & Liotta, R. F. (1982). Reduction of cigarette smoking in a university cafeteria. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(4), 573–577. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1982.15-573.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Lerman, D. C., LeBlanc, L. A., & Valentino, A. L. (2015). Evidence-based application of staff and caregiver training procedures. In H. Roane, J. E. Ringdahl, & T. Falcomata (Eds.), Clinical and organizational applications of applied behavior analysis (pp. 321-351.). New York: Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-420249-8.00014-9.

  19. Luiselli, J. K. (2018). Organizational behavior management in human services programs. In B. Wine & J. Pritchard (Eds.), Organizational behavior management: The essentials (pp. 340–363). Orlando: Hedgehog Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Mechling, L. C. (2008). Thirty years review of safety skills instruction for persons with intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43(3), 311–323 https://www.jstor.org/stable/23879793.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Merritt, T. A., DiGennaro Reed, F. D., & Martinez, C. E. (2019). Using the performance diagnostic checklist-human services to identify an indicated intervention to decrease employee tardiness. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 52(4), 1034–1048. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.643.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Mishra, P., Grasso, E., Essien, J., & Luiselli, J. K. (2019). Case demonstration of environmental cuing and brief supervision monitoring as performance management interventions with educational care providers. Child & Family Behavior Therapy. Published online: 15 November 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/00168890.2019.1690092.

  23. Mueller, M. M., Moore, J. W., Doggett, R. A., & Tingstrom, D. H. (2000). The effectiveness of contingency-specific and contingency-nonspecific prompts in controlling bathroom graffiti. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(1), 89–92. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2000.33-89.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Novak, M. D., DiGennaro Reed, F. D., Erath, T. G., Blackman, A. L., Ruby, S. A., & Pellegrino, A. J. (2019). Evidence-based performance management: Applying behavioral science to support practitioners. Perspectives on Behavior Science, 42(4), 955–972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-019-00232-z.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Perrin, C. J., Fredrick, A., & Klick, S. (2016). Effects of public posting and goal setting on team performance in a residential setting. Behavioral Interventions, 31(2), 300–308. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1451.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Reid, D.H. & Parsons, M.B. (2006). Motivating human service staff. Morganton, North Carolina: Habilitative Management Consultants, Inc. ISBN-10: 0964556200.

  27. Rubio, E. K., & Sigurdsson, S. O. (2014). Sustained effects of a visual prompt on dish storage in a hospital unit. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(4), 845–849. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.161.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Schmidt, J. D., Urban, K. D., Luiselli, J. K., White, C., & Harrington, C. (2013). Improving appearance, organization, and safety of special education classrooms: Effects of staff training in a human services setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2013.0012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Shapiro, M., & Kazemi, E. (2017). A review of training strategies to teach individuals implementation of behavioral interventions. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 37(1), 32–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2016.1267066.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Sherrard, J., Ozanne-Smith, J., & Staines, C. (2004). Prevention of unintentional injury to people with intellectual disability: A review of the evidence. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48(2), 639–645. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2003.00570.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Tyler, C. V., White-Scott, S., Ekvall, S. M., & Abulafia, L. (2008). Environmental health and developmental disabilities: A life span approach. Family and Community Health, 31(4), 287–304. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.FCH.0000336092.39066.a0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. United States Department of Health and Human Services (2018). Ensuring beneficiary health and safety in group homes through state implementation of comprehensive compliance oversight. Retrieved 6 April 2020 (oig.hhs.gov/reports-and-publications/featured-topics (group homes/group homes-joint-report.pdf).

  33. Wilder, D. A., & Sigurdsson, S. O. (2015). Applications of behavior analysis to improve safety in organizations and community settings. In H. Roane, J. E. Ringdahl, & T. Falcomata (Eds.), Clinical and organizational applications of applied behavior analysis (pp. 583–604). New York: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 9780124202498.

  34. Wilder, D. A., Austin, J., & Casella, S. (2009). Applying behavior analysis in organizations: Organizational behavior management. Psychological Services, 6, 202–211. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Wilder, D. A., Lipschultz, J., & Gehrman, C. (2018). An evaluation of the performance diagnostic checklist-human services across domains. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0243-y.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Wilder, D. A., Cymbal, D., & Villacorta, J. (2020). The performance diagnostic checklist-human services: A brief review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 53(2), 1170–1176. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.676.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Wine, B. (2017). Incentive-based performance improvement. In J. K. Luiselli (Ed.), Applied behavior analysis advanced guidebook: A manual for professional practice (pp. 118–134). Elsevier/Academic Press.

  38. Wine, B., Reis, M., & Hantula, D. A. (2014). An evaluation of preference assessment methodology in organizational behavior management. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 34, 7–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

There was no funding associated with the study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to James K. Luiselli.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed with participants in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gianotti, J., Kahl, T., Harper, J.M. et al. Behavioral Safety Assessment and Intervention among Residential Care Providers of Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. J Dev Phys Disabil 33, 789–798 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-020-09773-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Behavioral assessment
  • Behavior-based safety
  • Intellectual and developmental disabilities
  • Performance management
  • Residential care