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The initial psychometric properties for the Total Body Developmental Sequences for youth with visual impairments


Youth with visual impairments often show difficulties with gross motor skills regardless of age or sex. Gross motor skills support positive developmental trajectories for health warranting the need for assessment. The Total Body Developmental Sequences (TBDS) are fast, easy-to-use, indices of gross motor development with relatively unknown psychometric properties for youth with visual impairments. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the TBDS with a secondary purpose to evaluate differential effects of biological sex, age, and degree of vision on gross motor skills. Youth with visual impairments (N = 57, ages 9 – 19 years, Boys = 23, Girls = 34) completed the TBDS and the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-3). Results showed good initial psychometric properties (r = .89, α = .84, p < .001). Furthermore, the participants in this sample showed significant differences in gross motor skills based upon degree of vision (p < .05) but not sex or age (p > .05). The TBDS may now be used as an initial gross motor screening tool for youth with visual impairments. This initial screen (TBDS) is warranted as youth with visual impairments may show arrested development which may be exacerbated with more severe visual impairments.

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This project received funding from a University of South Carolina ASPIRE I Grant.

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Brian and Fisher are co-lead authors with equal contributions.

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Correspondence to Ali Brian.

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The University of South Carolina Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration approved all procedures.

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Parents provided written consent and children verbal assent for participation.

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Ali Brian and Jenna R. Fisher denotes co-lead authorship

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Brian, A., Fisher, J.R., Miedema, S.T. et al. The initial psychometric properties for the Total Body Developmental Sequences for youth with visual impairments. J Dev Phys Disabil 33, 725–740 (2021).

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  • Fundamental motor skill
  • Motor development
  • Gross motor
  • Blindness
  • Assessment