The Effects of Inclusive Soccer Program on Motor Performance and Sport Skill in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities

  • C.-C. (J.J.) ChenEmail author
  • Y.-J. Ryuh
  • Q. Fang
  • Y. Lee
  • M.-L. Kim


This study aimed at investigating the effect of inclusive soccer program on motor performance and sport skill in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Twelve participants with ID and twelve typical partners practiced 50-min each session, twice a week for 15-week long. All participants were encouraged to perform the practice at moderate exercise intensity. Measures of manual dexterity, mobility and soccer skills were tested pre- and post- program. This study showed participants with ID were able to perceive and report a number of exertion level in response to the intensity of exercise. In addition, participants with and without ID improved their performance in the Purdue Pegboard Test and Special Olympics Soccer Skill test. Thus, the mutual benefits in physical and motor performance were also evident in the typical partners. Our findings can encourage school and community to implement the inclusive sport programs. Lastly, the comparison groups and more measures are needed to generalize the findings to the large group.


Inclusion Sport Manual dexterity Intellectual disabilities 



We appreciate Amanda Bailey, Emily Wood, Emily Wise, Meredith Bass, Rebekah Shirley, Mary Enger, Aimee Pride, Olivia Lauren, Beth Brinkley, Katie McWhirter, Hannah Hardwick, Madelyn Winstead, and Meg Crocker who were the students who helped with data collection and participated in soccer practice as partners.


This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOE) (NRF-2017S1A2A2039405) and Mississippi State University College of Education Undergraduate Research Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from individual participants without intellectual disabilities and all parents/guardians of individual participants with intellectual disabilities included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in reference to this work.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sports, Leisure, and RecreationSoonchunhyang UniversityAsanSouth Korea

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