Skip to main content

Personality in Combination with Alcohol and Drug Use and Psychiatric Disorders to Predict Psychosocial Characteristics and Behaviors of Hepatitis C Patients


The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of personality disorders and to examine personality as a predictor of psychosocial characteristics and behaviors of HCV patients. HCV patients (n = 259) from three infectious disease and liver clinics who completed Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), an inventory for personality traits, were included in the study. Patients with low scale scores in the character dimension of both cooperativeness and self-directedness (low CO/SD) were defined as having a personality disorder. Using low CO/SD in combination with demographic, psychiatric/substance use, and HCV-related variables, linear regression was used to construct separate models of risky behaviors, quality of life, functioning, burden of illness, and social support. The prevalence of low CO/SD was high in this sample of HCV patients. Low CO/SD was an independent predictor of risky behaviors, quality of life, functioning, and social support.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Batki, S. L., Canfield, K. M., & Ploutz-Snyder, R. (2011). Psychiatric and substance use disorders among methadone maintenance patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: Effects on eligibility for hepatitis C treatment. The American Journal on Addictions, 20, 312–318.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chesney, M. A., Ickovics, J. R., Chambers, D. B., Gifford, A. L., Neidig, J., Zwickl, B., …, Patient Care Committee & Adherence. (2000). Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral medications among participants in HIV clinical trials: The AACTG adherence instruments. Patient Care Committee & Adherence Working Group of the Outcomes Committee of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG). AIDS Care, 12(3), 255–266.

  • Cloninger, C. R. (2000). A practical way to diagnosis personality disorder: A proposal. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 99–108.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, N. M., & Svrakic, D. M. (1997). Role of personality self-organization in development of mental order and disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 881–906.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hines, R., Decker, C. L., Witt, W. P., Marconi, K., & Singer, B. (1997). Demand for and use of advocacy services for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Four special projects of national significance HIV advocacy projects. AIDS & Public Policy Journal, 12, 89–101.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marco, A., Antón, J. J., Saiz de la Hoya, P., de Juan, J., Faraco, I., Caylà, J. A., …, PERSEO Group. (2015). Personality disorders among Spanish prisoners starting hepatitis C treatment: Prevalence and associated factors. Psychiatry Research, 230(3), 749–756.

  • Martínez-Raga, J., Marshall, E. J., Keaney, F., Best, D., Ball, D., & Strang, J. (2001). Hepatitis B and C in alcohol-dependent patients admitted to a UK alcohol inpatient treatment unit. Addiction Biology, 6, 363–372.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • North, C. S., & Cloninger, C. R. (2012). Personality and major depression among directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Depression Research and Treatment, 2012, 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • North, C. S., Pollio, D. E., Sims, O. T., & Hong, B. A. (2017a). Prospective longitudinal substance use patterns in patients preparing for hepatitis C treatment. Journal of Dual Diagnosis.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • North, C. S., Pollio, D. E., Sims, O. T., Jain, M. K., Brown, G. R., Downs, D. L., …, Hong, B. A. (2017). An effectiveness study of group psychoeducation for hepatitis C patients in community clinics. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

  • Robins, L. N., Cottler, L. B., Compton, W. M., Bucholz, K., North, C. S., & Rourke, K. M. (2000). Diagnostic interview schedule for the DSM-IV (DIS-IV). St Louis: Washington University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rzepa, S. R., & Weissman, M. (2014). Social adjustment scale self-report (SAS-SR). In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 6017–6021). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Sims, O. T., Oh, H., Pollio, D. E., Hong, B. A., Pollio, E. W., & North, C. S. (2019). Quality of life, functioning, and coping in HCV patients continuing versus ceasing alcohol use. Health Promotion Practice.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Svrakic, D. M., Whitehead, C., Przybeck, T. R., & Cloninger, C. R. (1993). Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 991–999.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wachtel, T., Piette, J., Mor, V., Stein, M., Fleishman, J., & Carpenter, C. (1992). Quality of life in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection: Measurement by the medical outcomes study instrument. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116, 129–137.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization. (2004). The composite international diagnostic interview-substance abuse module. Geneva: World Health Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yovtcheva, S. P., Rifai, M. A., Moles, J. K., & Van der Linden, B. J. (2001). Psychiatric comorbidity among hepatitis C-positive patients. Psychosomatics, 42, 411–415.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Omar T. Sims.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

This work was supported by a National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant R01 AA15201 to Dr. North. The research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under award R25DA028567 to Dr. Sims. Drs. Oh, Pollio, Hong, and Pollio do not have any conflict of interest to disclose.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (include the name of committee + reference number) and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sims, O.T., Oh, H., Pollio, D.E. et al. Personality in Combination with Alcohol and Drug Use and Psychiatric Disorders to Predict Psychosocial Characteristics and Behaviors of Hepatitis C Patients. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 28, 161–167 (2021).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Personality
  • Hepatitis C
  • Alcohol use
  • Drug use
  • Prevalence
  • Psychosocial