Predicting Posttraumatic Growth in Mothers and Fathers of Critically Ill Children: A Longitudinal Study
- 106 Downloads
Research on parental psychological effects related to a child’s critical illness has focused on studying negative outcomes, while the possibility of posttraumatic growth (PTG), defined as the perception of positive changes after a traumatic event, has been overlooked. This study explores the degree of parental PTG after a child’s hospitalization in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the role of resilience, emotions, perceived severity of the child’s condition and stress in predicting PTG. In the first 48 h after their child’s discharge from a PICU, N = 196 parents were assessed for resilience, emotions, perceived stress, and the degree to which they perceived their child’s condition as severe. 6 months later N = 143 parents were assessed PTG. 6 months post discharge, 37.1% of parents reported PTG at least to a medium degree. Path analyses with latent variables showed that the psychological variables assessed at discharge predicted between 20 and 21% of the total variance in PTG. Resilience affected PTG indirectly, through the bias of positive emotions. PTG is a frequent phenomenon. Psychological interventions aimed at encouraging parental PTG after a child’s critical admission should focus on boosting resilience and positive emotions.
KeywordsResilience Posttraumatic growth Parents Critically ill children Parent stress Parent emotions Pediatric intensive care unit
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey and Jesús Alonso-Tapia declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the united states on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Pearson-Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Janoff-Bulman, R. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Three explanatory models. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 30–34.Google Scholar
- Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Development psychopathology: Risk, disorder and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 740–795). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Páez, D., Bobowik, M., Carrera, P., & Bosco, S. (2011). Evaluación de Afectividad durante diferentes episodios emocionales. [Affectivity assessment during various emotional episodes]. In D. Páez, C. Martin Beristain, J. L. González-Castro, J. de Rivera & N. Basabe (Eds.), Superando la violencia colectiva y construyendo cultura de paz (pp. 151–163). Madrid: Fundamentos.Google Scholar
- Vázquez, C., & Páez, D. (2010). Posttraumatic growth in Spain. In T. Weiss & R. Berger (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth and culturally competent practice: Lessons learned from around the globe (pp. 97–112). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Windle, G. (2010). What is resilience? A systematic review and concept analysis. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 21, 1–18.Google Scholar
- Windle, G., Bennett, K., & Noyes, J. (2011). A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(8), 2–18.Google Scholar