Prospective Comparison of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in Predicting Treatment Outcomes Among Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

  • Anthony M. Tarescavage
  • Judith Scheman
  • Yossef S. Ben-Porath


The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative utility of the most updated MMPI adult instrument, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), which was designed to address psychometric limitations of the MMPI-2. To this end, we compared mean scores and correlates of emotional distress treatment outcomes using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in a sample of 230 patients (73 males, 157 females) who had completed an interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that higher scale scores from all the MMPI-2-RF substantive domains were meaningfully associated with worse emotional distress outcomes, whereas the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales generally did not have any meaningful associations. Similar results were found in additional analyses using a clinically significant change framework with more direct clinical implications. The results of this study provide preliminary support for the use of the MMPI-2-RF among patients with chronic low back pain.


MMPI-2-RF Chronic pain Back pain Treatment outcome Applied assessment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Yossef Ben-Porath is a paid consultant to the MMPI-2-RF publisher, the University of Minnesota Press, and a distributor for Pearson Assessments. He receives royalties on sales of MMPI-2-RF materials and research Grants from the MMPI-2-RF publisher. Anthony Tarescavage also receives research funding from the MMPI-2-RF publisher. The authors thank Dr. Kelly Huffman for her help with institutional review board processing and approval. Judith Scheman declares that she does not have any conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony M. Tarescavage
    • 1
  • Judith Scheman
    • 2
  • Yossef S. Ben-Porath
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesJohn Carroll UniversityUniversity HeightsUSA
  2. 2.Digestive Disease and Surgical InstituteCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychological SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA

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