Advertisement

An Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF)

  • Richard W. Handel
Original Paper

Abstract

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF; Archer, Handel, Ben-Porath, & Tellegen, 2016) is a new broadband measure of adolescent psychopathology and personality. The MMPI-A-RF is the adolescent counterpart of the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). The goal of the MMPI-2-RF development project was to capture the clinically significant substance of the MMPI-2 item pool with a psychometrically sound measure linked to contemporary models of personality and psychopathology (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). Using the MMPI-2-RF scales and development methods as models, Archer et al. (2016) developed a 241-item adolescent self-report inventory—in contrast to the 478-items of the MMPI-A—that includes 48 new and revised scales. In this manuscript, I provide an overview of the rationale for the development of the MMPI-A-RF, an abbreviated review of its development process, brief descriptions of its 48 scales, and a subset of analyses bearing on reliability and validity. As with the MMPI-2-RF, one of our primary goals was to develop scales with improved discriminant validity relative to the heterogeneous Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. The MMPI-A-RF development process employed a large sample of 15,128 adolescents (9,286 boys and 5,842 girls) drawn from a variety of settings. In addition to the development sample, subsequent validation analyses were conducted in multiple independent samples including numerous external criterion measures. The MMPI-A-RF is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent psychopathology and personality in a wide array of clinical and forensic settings.

Keywords

MMPI-A MMPI-A-RF Adolescents Assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The development of the MMPI-A-RF was supported by grants from the University of Minnesota Press.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Richard W. Handel declares that he receives royalties on the sales of MMPI-A-RF test materials.

Human Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000, and any later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Data and analyses reported in this paper were based on archival, deidentified data sets and are reproduced from the MMPI-A-RF Manual (Archer et al., 2016). The procedures did not meet the federal definition of research with human subjects, so informed consent was unnecessary.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the achenbach system of empirically based assessment school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, R. P. (2017). Assessing adolescent psychopathology: MMPI-A/MMPI-A-RF (4th ed.). New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  4. Archer, R. P., Buffington-Vollum, J. K., Stredny, R. V., & Handel, R. W. (2006). A survey of psychological test use patterns among forensic psychologists. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 84–94. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8701_07.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Archer, R. P., Handel, R. W., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2016). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF): Administration, scoring, interpretation, and technical manual. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  6. Archer, R. P., Maruish, M., Imhof, E. A., & Piotrowski, C. (1991). Psychological test usage with adolescent clients: 1990 survey findings. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22, 247–252. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.22.3.247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Archer, R. P., & Newsom, C. R. (2000). Psychological test usage with adolescent clients: Survey update. Assessment, 7, 227–235. doi: 10.1177/107319110000700303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2012). Interpreting the MMPI-2-RF. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Porath, Y. S., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (2006). Supplement to the MMPI-A manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2008/2011). MMPI-2-RF (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  12. Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W. G., Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  13. Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Kaemmer, B. (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation (rev ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  14. Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Kaemmer, B. (1992). MMPI-A (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Capwell, D. F. (1945). Personality patterns of adolescent girls. II. Delinquents and non-delinquents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 29, 284–297. doi: 10.1037/h0054701.Google Scholar
  16. Colligan, R. C., & Offord, K. P. (1989). The aging MMPI: Contemporary norms for contemporary teenagers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 64, 3–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Forbey, J. D., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2003). Incremental validity of the MMPI-A content scales in a residential treatment facility. Assessment, 10(2), 191–202. doi: 10.1177/1073191103010002010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Forbey, J. D., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2008). Empirical correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales in a non-clinical setting. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 136–141. doi: 10.1080/00223890701845161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Forbey, J. D., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Gartland, D. (2009). Validation of the MMPI-2 computerized adaptive version (MMPI-2-CA) in a correctional intake facility. Psychological Services, 6, 279–292. doi: 10.1037/a0016195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottesman, I. I., Hanson, D. R., Kroeker, T. A., & Briggs, P. F. (1987). New MMPI normative data and power-transformed T–score tables for the Hathaway-Monachesi Minnesota cohort of 14,019 fifteen-year-olds and 3,674 eighteen-year-olds. In R. P. Archer (Ed.), Using the MMPI with adolescents (pp. 241–297). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Graham, J. R. (2012). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (5th ed.). New York: University of Oxford Press Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Handel, R. W., & Archer, R. P. (2008). An investigation of the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales with mental health inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 239–249. doi: 10.1080/00223890701884954.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Handel, R., Archer, R., Elkins, D., Mason, J., & Simonds-Bisbee, E. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) clinical, content, and supplementary scales in a forensic sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 566–581. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2011.608752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Handel, R. W., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., & Archer, R. P. (2010). Psychometric functioning of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales with varying degrees of randomness, acquiescence, and counter-acquiescence. Psychological Assessment, 22, 87–95. doi: 10.1037/a0017061.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Harkness, A. R., & McNulty, J. L. (1994). The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY–5): Issues from the pages of a diagnostic manual instead of a dictionary. In S. Strack & M. Lorr (Eds.), Differentiating normal and abnormal personality. New York: Springer Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  26. Harkness, A. R., & McNulty, J. L. (2007). Restructured versions of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  27. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (rev ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  28. Lally, S. J. (2003). What tests are acceptable for use in forensic evaluations? A survey of experts. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 491–498. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.34.5.491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marks, P. A., & Briggs, P. F. (1972). Adolescent norm tables for the MMPI. In W. G. Dahlstrom, G. S. Welsh, & L. E. Dahlstrom, An MMPI handbook: Vol. 1. Clinical interpretation (rev. ed., pp. 388–399). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  30. Marks, P. A., Seeman, W., & Haller, D. L. (1974). The actuarial use of the MMPI with adolescents and adults. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. McNulty, J. L., Harkness, A. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Williams, C. L. (1997). Assessing Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) in adolescents: New MMPI-A scales. Psychological Assessment, 9(3), 250–259. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.9.3.250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Monachesi, E. D. (1950). Personality characteristics of institutionalized and non-institutionalized male delinquents. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 41, 167–179.Google Scholar
  33. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2002). The clinician’s guide to the behavior assessment system for children (BASC). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Graham, J. R. (2006). Correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales in a college counseling setting. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 89–99. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8601_10.Google Scholar
  35. Shkalim, E. (2015). Psychometric evaluation of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical scales in an Israeli sample. Assessment, 22, 607–618. doi: 10.1177/1073191114555884.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (1992). The new uniform T scores for the MMPI-2 rationale, derivation, and appraisal. Psychological Assessment, 4, 145–155. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.4.2.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2008/2011). MMPI-2-RF (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form): Technical manual. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  38. Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., McNulty, J. L., Arbisi, P. A., Graham, J. R., & Kaemmer, B. (2003). MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales: Development, validation, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  39. Veltri, C. O. C., Graham, J. R., Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Forbey, J. D., O’Connell, C., … White, R. S. (2009). Correlations of MMPI-A scales in acute psychiatric and forensic samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 288–300. doi: 10.1080/00223890902794374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Wygant, D. B., Boutacoff, L. A., Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Kelly, P. H., & Rupp, W. M. (2007). Examination of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 14, 197–205. doi: 10.1007/s10880-007-9073-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations