The diversity-sensitive developmental model of psychotherapy integrates developmental theory, the empathic relationship-story and strengths-goals-restory-action model of the interview session, and the microskills hierarchy to better serve diverse clients. The model’s procedures for interviewing diverse clients, assessing clients’ communication style, and initiating psychotherapy in a culturally sensitive setting are introduced. The specific stages of the interview model and tips are provided to aid in its application in the initial interview. Sample questions and applicable microskills to help clients rooted in specific cognitive emotional styles and improve the interviewing process at each stage are presented. These are complemented with a review of methods to eliminate developmental blocks and suggestions to integrate sensitivity to cultural differences into the clinical setting, the initial interview, and the psychotherapeutic process. The application of this model is illustrated with a case study of an initial session with a Trinidadian–American female client.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Berke, D. M., Rozell, C. A., Hogan, T. P., Norcross, J. C., & Karpiak, C. P. (2011). What clinical psychologists know about evidence-based practice: Familiarity with online resources and research methods. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 329–339.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cashwell, C. S., Myers, J. E., & Shurts, M. W. (2004). Using the developmental counseling and therapy model to work with a client in spiritual bypass: Some preliminary considerations. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 403–409.
Daniels, T. (2010). A review of research on microcounseling: 1967—present. In A. Ivey, M. Ivey, & C. Zalaquett (Eds.), Intentional interviewing and counseling: Your interactive resource [CD-ROM]. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Daniels, T., & Ivey, A. (2007). Microcounseling: Innovations in interviewing, counseling, and therapy. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Dobson, D. J. G., & Dobson, K. S. (2009). Evidence-based practice of cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Guterman, J. T. (2006). Mastering the art of solution-focused counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Haley, J. (1980). Leaving home. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ivey, A. (1991). Developmental strategies for helpers: Individual, family, and network interventions. North Amherst, MA: Microtraining.
Ivey, A. (2000). Developmental therapy: Theory into practice. North Amherst, MA: Microtraining Associates. (originally published, 1986).
Ivey, A. E., Ivey, M. B., & Rigazio-DiGilio, S. (2005). Standard cognitive/emotional developmental interview. In A. E. Ivey, M. B. Ivey, J. E. Myers, & T. J. Sweeney (Eds.), Developmental counseling and therapy: Promoting wellness over the lifespan (pp. 194–200). New York: Houghton-Mifflin/Lahaska.
Ivey, A. E., Ivey, M. B., Myers, J., & Sweeney, T. (2006). Developmental counseling and therapy: Promoting wellness over the lifespan. Boston: Lahaska/Houghton Mifflin.
Ivey, A., Ivey, M. B., & Zalaquett, C. (2010). Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Ivey, A. E., Ivey, M. B., & Zalaquett, C. (2012). Essentials of counseling and interviewing (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Ivey, A. E., & Zalaquett, C. (2011). Neuroscience and counseling: Central issue for social justice leaders. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3, 103–116.
Lane, R. (2008). Neural substrates of implicit and explicit emotional processes: A unifying framework for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 214–231.
Lanier, J. (2010). Problems, concerns, issues, and challenges: How shall we talk about the story? In A. Ivey, M. B. Ivey, & C. Zalaquett (Eds.), Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society (7th ed., p. 18). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Myers, J. E. (1998). Bibliotherapy and DCT: Co-constructing the therapeutic metaphor. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 243–250.
Norcross, J. C., & Lambert, M. J. (2011). Psychotherapy relationships that work II. Psychotherapy, 48, 4–8.
Norcross, J. C., & Wampold, B. E. (2011). What works for whom: Tailoring psychotherapy to the person. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 67(2), 127–132.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2004). Character, strengths, and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International University Press.
Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., & Evers, K. E. (2008). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education (4th ed., pp. 105–121). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.
Zalaquett, C. P., Ivey, A., & Ivey, M. B. (2010). Instructor’s resources guide (IRG) for intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
About this article
Cite this article
Zalaquett, C.P., Chatters, S.J. & Ivey, A.E. Psychotherapy Integration: Using a Diversity-Sensitive Developmental Model in the Initial Interview. J Contemp Psychother 43, 53–62 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-012-9224-6
- Psychotherapy integration
- Developmental counseling and therapy