Diagnostic criteria and empirical research suggests an intimate connection between low self-esteem and psychopathology. The purpose of the present work is to provide a review of the literature that focuses on the interconnections between self-esteem and psychopathology. The most prominent explanations for this link are explored including the vulnerability model (low self-esteem increases the probability of psychopathology) and the scar model (low self-esteem is a consequence of psychopathology rather than a cause). Recent advancements in the self-esteem literature concerning distinctions between secure and fragile forms of self-esteem are discussed in terms of their potential implications for psychopathology. Finally, the role of self-esteem in psychotherapeutic interventions is reviewed.
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Zeigler-Hill, V. The Connections Between Self-Esteem and Psychopathology. J Contemp Psychother 41, 157–164 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-010-9167-8