Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 31, Issue 5, pp 975–979 | Cite as

Transcutaneous near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring spinal cord ischemia: an experimental study in swine

  • Koichi SuehiroEmail author
  • Tomoharu Funao
  • Yohei Fujimoto
  • Akira Mukai
  • Mitsuyo Nakamura
  • Kiyonobu Nishikawa
Original Research


We aimed to assess the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect spinal cord ischemia, and to evaluate changes in regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) following recovery of spinal cord circulation and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Four 12-month-old female swine weighing 28.7–29.5 kg were acquired for this study. NIRS probes were placed along the midline of the upper (T6/7) and lower (T9/T10) thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic aorta was clamped distal of the left subclavian artery to induce spinal ischemia. Aortic cross-clamping was maintained for 30 min. Fifteen minutes after aortic de-clamping, the cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheter was opened to air, and cerebrospinal fluid drainage was initiated. Following aortic clamping, rSO2 in both upper and lower regions of the spinal cord decreased by 15 % within 5 min and by 20 % within 10 min (relative change). After aortic de-clamping, rSO2 values in both regions returned to baseline within 5 min. No changes in rSO2 in either the upper or lower vertebrae were observed following initiation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Histological analysis revealed that ischemic changes had occurred in all spinal levels. NIRS may be used to detect decreases in and recovery of spinal cord circulation following aortic clamping and de-clamping, whereas it may not reflect minor changes in spinal cord circulation due to cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Further clinical studies are required to investigate the potential for NIRS as an index of spinal cord circulation.


Aortic clamping Near-infrared spectroscopy Spinal ischemia Spinal cord Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm 



This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for scientific research in Japan [no. J102640032].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This study complies with the current laws of our country. The contents of this study have not been published elsewhere nor are being submitted elsewhere. The manuscript has been read and approved by all co-authors, and does not have any potential conflicts of interest including commercial relationships such as consultation and equity interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Suehiro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomoharu Funao
    • 1
  • Yohei Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Akira Mukai
    • 1
  • Mitsuyo Nakamura
    • 1
  • Kiyonobu Nishikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsaka CityJapan

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