Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 813–825 | Cite as

Fatty Acids of Enteromorpha intestinalis Emulsified Drug Delivery Nanoemulsion: Evaluation of Loading Mechanism and Release Kinetics for Drug Delivery

  • Abdul Azeez Nazeer
  • Sudarshana Deepa VijaykumarEmail author
  • Muthupandian Saravanan
Original Paper


The selection of bio-surfactants in consonance with the pharmaceutical drug in the preparation of nanoemulsion for the controlled release of drugs and bio-compatibility is still a scientific moot. We have investigated the possible mechanism of drug-surfactant interaction in this research that can iron out the surfactant identification complication. The bio-surfactants 9-Octadecenoic acid, 9-Octadeceamide and Isopropyl Myristate isolated from a marine weed Enteromorpha intestinalis were used together to stabilize the nanoemulsion. The encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics of Aspirin in nanoemulsion under different pH conditions from the nanoemulsion was studied. Nanoemulsion was prepared by the ultrasonication method and characterized by centrifugation, capillary viscometer, freeze–thaw cycle assays, dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS) and HR-TEM. The mechanism of drug surfactant interaction deduced using Spectrophotometric and ATR-FTIR analysis revealed the possible bond formations. In-vitro drug release profiles of aspirin (model drug) were evaluated by dialysis in different pH (1.2, 6.8 and 7.4) using by UV-spectrophotometry and the effective release of aspirin was observed in pH 6.8. The release kinetics was studied to identify the mode of release. The bio-surfactant based nanoemulsion of 15:6:9 composition exhibited ideal stability and controlled release in all pH conditions with linearity and time-dependent paradigm.


Nanoemulsion Bio-surfactant Drug delivery E. intestinalis Pharmaceutical potential 



The authors are thankful to DST-SERB for providing us with the fund to carry out the project under the project file number YSS/2014/000637. We also thank The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore for their help in GC–MS analysis. We thank Dr. K. Gopal Shankar for rendering his help in reframing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Azeez Nazeer
    • 1
  • Sudarshana Deepa Vijaykumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muthupandian Saravanan
    • 2
  1. 1.Nano-Bio Translational Research Laboratory, Department of BiotechnologyBannari Amman Institute of TechnologySathyamangalam, ErodeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, College of Health SciencesMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia

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