Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Assisted Controlled Release of Synthetic Insect Attractant for Effective and Sustainable Trapping of Fruit Flies
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The use of attractants in mass insect pest trapping is the emerging approach in eco-friendly pest management. The rate of release and stability of attractants are important factors in determining the cost of the trap dispenser system. Nano-materials are widely used for sustained release of bioactive compounds in bio-medical sciences. In the present study, it was explored the scope of using metal oxide nanoparticles (SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO NPs) to regulate discharge of methyl eugenol (ME) from lure dispensers. The discharge of ME with various concentrations of nanomaterials was investigated at different temperatures. Among these, maximum controlled release of ME was found at 10−5 dilution at temperature between 30 and 35 °C. The interaction between metal oxides NPs and ME was investigated through FT-IR and DLS analyses. The results revealed a weak interaction apparently due to the presence of van der Waals forces. The metal oxide NPs assisted controlled release of ME was investigated in the mango orchards. Among the samples, ME with TiO2 NPs (dilution: 10−5) showed a higher number of fruit fly catches than the others for up to 12 weeks. These findings provide an evidence for the hypothesis of controlled release or discharge of the insect attractant for trapping of fruit flies achieved using metal oxide nanoparticles.
KeywordsMethyl eugenol Metal oxide nanoparticles Lure dispenser Effective discharge Fruit flies
One of the authors (SJ) acknowledges the financial assistance received from National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras to carry out the programme. We thank to Dr. G. Harichandran and Mr. P. Thangamuniyandi, Department of Polymer Science, University of Madras for their assistance in metal oxide nanoparticles preparation. All authors are gratefully thanked Mr. Anirudha Karati, Central Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras for HR-TEM analysis.
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Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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