Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 2123–2131 | Cite as

Strategic Green Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Application to 4-Nitrophenol Reduction of Palladium Nanoparticles

  • R. Gopalakrishnan
  • B. Loganathan
  • S. Dinesh
  • K. Raghu
Original Paper


We present a study on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by sodium borohydride in the presence of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using the seed extract of milk thistle (Silibum marianum). Ultra violet-visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopic analyses were respectively used to characterize and confirm the formation, crystalline nature and morphology of the as-synthesized PdNPs. The particles are spherical, crystalline and the size range is <20 nm. The identification of the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reeducation and stabilization of PdNPs was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effectiveness of as-synthesized PdNPs catalyst has been evaluated, on the well-known 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride and it was monitored using UV–Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The reduction was very efficient and the as-synthesized homogeneous liquid-phase catalyst is eco-friendly, very efficient, easy to synthesize, stable, cost effective and have the potential for industrial applications.


Silybum marianum Biosynthesis Palladium nanoparticles Catalytic activity 4-Nitrophenol reduction 



The authors are grateful to Dr. S. Barathan (Professor, Department of Physics and Dean, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University) for his motivations and suggestions throughout this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Gopalakrishnan
    • 1
  • B. Loganathan
    • 2
  • S. Dinesh
    • 1
  • K. Raghu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry (Science and Humanities)M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering (Autonomous)Thalavapalayam, KarurIndia

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