Biosynthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of SnO2 Nanoparticles Prepared Using Aqueous Extract of Cauliflower
- 285 Downloads
This work reports the biosynthesis of Sn(OH)2 using aqueous extract of fresh cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), and the subsequent preparation of SnO2 nanoparticles at two different annealing temperatures of 300 and 450 °C for 2 h. The obtained SnO2 nanoparticles were denoted as S1 and S2 for the samples prepared at 300 and 450 °C, respectively. XRD analysis identified rutile tetragonal phase of SnO2 nanoparticles and TEM results gave a quasispherical and spherical morphologies for S1 and S2 respectively of the size range 3.62–6.34 nm. The optical properties were studied with UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, and the nanoparticles showed blue shift in their absorption edges. The observed emission peak in the PL spectra found around 419 nm is attributable to oxygen vacancies and defects. Photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles (S1 and S2) were studied using methylene blue (MB) under ultraviolet light irradiation and the results reveal 91.89 and 88.23% degradation efficiency of MB by S1 and S2 respectively over a period of 180 min.
KeywordsGreen synthesis SnO2 Nanoparticles Photodegradation Methylene blue
JO acknowledges North-West University, Mafikeng campus, South Africa for a Postdoctoral research position and for providing the necessary facilities to carry out this work. The authors gratefully appreciate Dr. Anine Jordaan, of North-West University, Potchefstroom campus, for Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis.
- 1.W. Wu, Q. He, and C. Jiang (2008). Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and surface functionalization strategies nanoscale. Res. Lett. 3, 397–415.Google Scholar
- 20.J. Hu (2015). Biosynthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles by Fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract for electrochemically determining Hg(II) in water samples. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 10, 10668–10676.Google Scholar
- 28.G. Sangami and N. Dharmaraj (2016). UV–visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Spectrochim. Acta 97A, 847–852.Google Scholar
- 34.V. V. Makarov, A. J. Love, O. V. Sinitsyna, S. S. Makarova, I. V. Yaminsky, M. E. Taliansky, and N. O. Kalinina (2014). Green nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Nat. 6, 35–44.Google Scholar
- 41.G. Socrates (ed.) Infrared and Raman characteristics group frequencies, 3rd ed (Wiley, New York, 2001), p. 347.Google Scholar
- 49.S. Gnanam and V. Rajendran (2010). Luminescence properties of EG-assisted SnO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel process. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 5, 699–704.Google Scholar
- 60.S. B. Khan, M. Faisal, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, A. Khan, and K. A. Alamry (2013). Effect of particle size on the photocatalytic activity and sensing properties of CeO2 nanoparticles. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8, 7284–7297.Google Scholar