Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 610–616 | Cite as

Clearing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Infection Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: a Case Report and Review of Literature

  • Mohammadreza Shaghaghi
  • Mona Irannejad
  • Hassan Abolhassani
  • Shohreh Shahmahmoodi
  • Amir Ali Hamidieh
  • Saeed Soleyman-Jahi
  • Reza Yazdani
  • Gholamreza Azizi
  • Asghar Aghamohammadi
Original Article


The use of oral poliovirus vaccine in a worldwide scale has led to a 99.9% decrease in annual incidence of wild-type poliomyelitis and the eradication of serotype 2 poliovirus. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is endangering the eradication program. Patients with combined immunodeficiencies are at increased risk of both vaccine-associated poliomyelitis and prolonged asymptomatic infection with immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs). Herein, we present a severe combined immunodeficiency patient with prolonged and asymptomatic iVDPV infection. He continued to shed poliovirus during immunoglobulin replacement therapy and cleared the infection following successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To explain the efficiency of HSCT in clearing the infection, we reviewed the literature for all reports of HSCT in iVDPV-excreting patients and discussed novel ideas about the role of different immune mechanisms, including cell-mediated interactions, in mounting immune responses against poliovirus infections. This study could provide further insights into the immune mechanisms contributing to the clearance of enteroviral infections.


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation poliomyelitis poliovirus vaccine primary immunodeficiency 



We thank Ahmad Nejati, Maryam Yousefi, Yaghoob Mollaie, and all the staff members of the Iran National Polio Laboratory and also CDC-Atlanta for performing thorough virologic studies.

This study was done at the Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The Iran National Polio Laboratory is supported by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the World Health Organization, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammadreza Shaghaghi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mona Irannejad
    • 1
  • Hassan Abolhassani
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shohreh Shahmahmoodi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Amir Ali Hamidieh
    • 6
  • Saeed Soleyman-Jahi
    • 7
  • Reza Yazdani
    • 1
  • Gholamreza Azizi
    • 8
  • Asghar Aghamohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center HospitalTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Network of Immunology in Infections, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran
  3. 3.Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory MedicineKarolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital HuddingeStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of Virology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Food Microbiology Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Cancer Immunology Project (CIP)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran
  8. 8.Non-Communicable Diseases Research CenterAlborz University of Medical SciencesKarajIran

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