Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1012–1018 | Cite as

Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Industrial Areas in Brazil: A 15-Year Survey

Article

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate whether there is an increased incidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) in individuals living in the vicinity of industrial plants that manufacture petroleum byproducts in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Methods

Between 1989 and 2004, 6,306 patients of both sexes, from 5 to 78 years old were divided in two groups according to their home location: Group 1: 3,356 residents living near industrial plants that manufacture petroleum byproducts (Region A), and Group 2: 2,950 residents living far from Region A in an area with predominantly steel industries (Region B). For all patients, we measured the serum levels of antithyroglobulin antibody, antithyroperoxidase antibody, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, free thyroxine and thyrostimulating hormone. Sonographic scans of the thyroid gland were also conducted.

Results

The proportion of patients with CAT coming from Region A increased from 2.5 % (5 patients with CAT/200 total patients) in 1992 to 57.6 % (106 patients with CAT/184 total patients) in 2001. This striking increase was highly significant (p < 0.001). Similar findings were not observed in Region B. The difference in the number of patients with CAT between 1989 and 2004 coming from Region A and Region B was highly significant (p < 0.001), with 905 CAT patients (83.95 %) in Region A and 173 CAT patients (16.05 %) in Region B.

Conclusion

Our results showed a striking increase in the incidence of CAT in residents in the vicinity of large industrial plants that manufacture petroleum byproducts compared with residents living near steel industries, which opens the field to new areas of research.

Keywords

Autoimmune thyroiditis petroleum byproducts industrial Brazil 

References

  1. 1.
    Vanderpump MPJ, Tunbridge WMG, French JM, Appleton D, Bates D, Clark F, Grimley Evans J, Hasan DM, Rodgers H, Tunbridge F, Young ET. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey. Clin Endocrinol. 1995;43:55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tunbridge WMG, Vanderpump MPJ. Population screening for autoimmune thyroid disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000;29:239–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weetman AP. Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;148:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collins J, Gough S. Autoimmunity in thyroid disease. Eur J Nucl Med. 2002;29 Suppl 2:S417–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fournier M, Brousseau P, Tryphonas H, Cyr D. Biomarkers of immunotoxicity: an evolutionary perspective. In: Guillette Jr LJ, Crain DA, editors. Environmental endocrine disrupters: an evolutionary perspective. New York: Taylor & Francis; 2000. p. 182–215.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allsopp M, Costner P, Johnston P. Body of evidence: the effects of chlorine on human health. Pull: Greenpeace International, 1995. ISBN 1857/532 2590, 90pp.Accessd on 19 June 2009Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu CC, Chen CC, Wu TN, Yang CY. Association of brain cancer with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollution in Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2008;A71(5):310–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang CY, Chiu HF, Tsai SS, Chang CC, Chuang HY. Increased risk of preterm delivery in areas with cancer mortality problems from petrochemical complex. Environ Res. 2002;69(3):195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neuberger JS, Ward-Smith P, Morantz RA, Tian C, Schmelzie KH, Mayo MS, Chin TD. Brain cancer in a residential area bordering on an oil refinery. Neuroepidemiology. 2003;22(1):46–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Langer P, Kocan A, Tajtakova M, Petrik J, Chovancova J, Drobna B, Jursa S, Pavuk M, Trnovec T, Seböková E, Klimes I. Human thyroid in the population exposed to high environmental pollution by organochlorinated pollutants for several decades. Endocr Regul. 2005;39(1):13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rádiková Z, Tajtáková M, Kocan A, Trnovec T, Seböková E, Klimes I, Langer P. Possible effects of environmental nitrates and toxic organochlorines on human thyroid in highly polluted areas in Slovakia. Thyroid. 2008;18(3):353–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    CETESB 2008. Available at: http://www.cetesb.sp.gov.br>. Accessed on 2 April 2010
  13. 13.
    Akamizu T, Amino N, De Groot LJ. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Thyroid Disease Manager 2008. Available at:http://www.thyroidmanager.org/Chapter8/8-contents.htm. Accessed on 6 March 2011
  14. 14.
    Dayan CM, Daniels GH. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(2):99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Esteves RZ, Kasamatsu TS, Kunii IS, Furuzawa GK, Vieira JGH, Maciel RMB. Development of a semi-automated method of measuring urinary iodine and its application in epidemiological studies in Brazilian schoolchildren [Port]. Brazilian Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2007;51/9:1477–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zaccarelli-Marino MA, Martins LC, Esteves RZ, Kasamatsu TS, Maciel RMB. Urinary iodine in patients with auto-immune Thyroid disorders in Santo André, SP, is comparable to normal controls and has been steady for the last 10 years [Port]. Brazilian Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2009;53/1:55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paknys G, Kondrotas AJ, Kevelaitis E. Risk factors and pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45(7):574–83.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rose NR, Rasooly L, Saboori AM, Burek CL. Linking iodine with autoimmune thyroiditis. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107:749–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM. The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150:605–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aminorroaya A, Janghorbani M, Amini M, Hovsepian S, Tabatabaei A, Fallah Z. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in an iodine-sufficient area in Iran. Arch Iranian Med. 2009;12(3):262–70.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langer P, Tajtáková M, Fodor G, Kocan A, Bohov P, Michálek J, Kreze A. Increased thyroid volume and prevalence of thyroid disorders in an area heavily polluted by polychlorinated biphenyls. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998;139(4):402–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Delange F, Benker G, Caron Ph, Eber O, Ott W, Peter F, Podoba J, Simescu M, Szybinsky Z, Vertongen F, Vitti P, Wiersinga W, Zamrazil V. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997;136:180–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gilbert KM, Griffin JM, Pumford NR. Trichloroethylene activates CD4+ T cells: potential role in an autoimmune response. Drug Metab Rev. 1999;31(4):901–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Griffin JM, Blossom SJ, Jackson SK, Gilbert KM, Pumford NR. Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL +/+ mice. Immunopharmacology. 2000;46:123–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gist GL, Burg JR. Trichloroethylene: a review of the literature from a health effects perspective. Toxicol Ind Health. 1995;11:253–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). National exposure registry, trichloroethylene subregistry baseline technical report (revised). 1994. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Selgrade MK. Immunotoxicity: the risk is real. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100(2):328–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rizzo M, Rossi RT, Bonaffini O, Scisca C, Altavilla G, Calbo L, Rosano A, Sindoni A, Trimarchi F, Benvenga S. Increased annual frequency of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis between years 1988 and 2007 at a cytological unit of Sicily. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2010;71(6):525–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Benvenga S, Trimarchi F. Changed presentation of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in North-Eastern Sicily and Calabria (Southern Italy) based on a 31-year experience. Thyroid. 2008;18(4):429–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vanderpump MPJ, Tunbridge WMG. The epidemiology of thyroid diseases. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD, editors. Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 8/E. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott- Raven; 2000. p. 467–73.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    PetrochemicalComplexABC2008.Availableat:attp://www.agenciabrasil.gov.br/noticias/2008/02/22.Accessed on 12 December 2009.
  32. 32.
    Landrigan PG. Children as a vulnerable population. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2004;17(1):175–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Freitas CU, Campos RAG, Silva MAFR, Panachão MRI, Moraes JC, Waissmann W, Chacra AR, Maeda MYS, Rodrigues RSM, Belchor LG, Barbosa SO, Santos RTM. Can living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease? Environ Res. 2010;110:112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kilburn KH, Washaw RW. Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well. Environ Res. 1992;57:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lockey JE, Kelly CR, Cannon GW, Colby TV, Aldrich V, Livingston GK, Lockey JE, Kelly CR, Cannon GW, Colby TV, Aldrich V, Livingston GK. Progressive systemic sclerosis associated with exposure to trichloroethylene. J Occup Med. 1997;29:493–6.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Martin A, Barbesino G, Davies TF. T-cell receptors and autoimmune thyroid disease-signposts for T-cell-antigen driven diseases. Int Rev Immunol. 1999;18:111–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rua Dr. Gabriel dos Santos, 405 -20° AndarSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Internal Medicine Department, Endocrinology Service, ABC Foundation Medical SchoolSanto AndréBrazil
  3. 3.Internal Medicine Department, Endocrinology ServiceUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations