Skip to main content

Halogenation processes linked to red wood ant nests (Formica spp.) and tectonics

Abstract

We investigated and evaluated the occurrence of fault zone tracer gases (CO2, He, Rn), volatile organohalogens (CH3Cl, CHCl3, CHBr3), alkanes and limonene in soil and nest gases of red wood ants (RWA) in comparison to ambient air, in a seismically active area. In this new approach, we compared RWA-free areas to RWA-areas by combining different investigation and analytical methods. In soil gas, the fault zone tracer gas Rn was surprisingly highly correlated to limonene, suggesting a combination of biotic production of limonene and abiotic degassing of Rn in a seismically active area; moderate correlations were found with trihalomethanes and other halocarbons. In RWA nests a variety of elevated concentrations of haloforms were found, while remaining below the atmospheric background values in RWA-free areas. The evidence of CHCl3 in RWA nests is the first record. Its average concentrations in nests of F. rufa and F. polyctena were up to 3 fold higher than atmospheric background and up to 28–70 fold higher compared to e.g. volcanic emissions being considered as one of its main geogenic sources. Thus, RWA nests could possibly be an additional source for CHCl3 liberation. Consequently, apart from RWA being bioindicators for seismically active degassing faults, they might also be used as bioindicators for CHCl3 formation in forest soils. Although we cannot yet differentiate between a geogenic/abiotic and a biotic formation. RWA nests will have to be reconsidered for halocarbon formation in future quantifications of geochemical cycles at global scale, since they impact organic soil chemistry through biotic and/or abiotic pathways. Therefore, further larger-scale research in different tectonic settings but also in well-known CHCl3 “hot spot” study areas such as the Klosterhede area (Denmark) should focus directly on gas sampling from confirmed active fault systems. Nests of other ant species should be addressed to compare seasonal, diurnal and nocturnal variations of degassing procedures in relation to earth tides, different geologic settings, and tectonic events such as earthquakes and on quantifying the fluxes to the atmosphere.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  • Albers, C.N., Laier, T., Jacobsen, O.S.: Formation, fate and leaching of chloroform in coniferous forest soils. Appl. Geochem. 25, 1525–1535 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Albers, C.N., Jacobsen, O.S., Flores, É.M.M., Pereira, J.S.F., Laier, T.: Spatial variation in natural formation of chloroform in the soils of four coniferous forests. Biogeochemistry. (2011). doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9467-9

    Google Scholar 

  • Balk, M., Bose, M., Ertem, G., Rogoff, D.A., Rothschild, L.J., Freund, F.T.: Oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide at the rock-water interface due to stress-activated electric currents in rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 283, 87–92 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balzani-Lööv, J.M., Henne, S., Legreid, G., Staehelin, J., Reimann, S., Prevot, A.S.H., Steinbacher, M., Vollmer, M.K.: Estimation of background concentrations of trace gases at the Swiss alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl). J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. (2008). doi:10.1029/2007JD009751

    Google Scholar 

  • Baubron, J.-C., Rigo, A., Toutain, J.-P.: Soil gas profiles as a tool to characterize active tectonic areas: the Jaut pass example (Pyrenees, France). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 196, 69–81 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baxter, F.P., Hole, F.D.: Ant (Formica cinerea) pedoturbation in a prairie soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31, 425–428 (1967)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, K.H., Brockmann, K.J., Bechara, J.: Production of hydrogen peroxide in forest air by reaction of ozone with terpenes. Nature. 346, 256–258 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belozerskaya, Т., Aslanidi, K., Ivanova, А., Gessler, N., Egorova, A., Karpenko, Y., Olishevskaya, S.: Characteristics of Extremophylic fungi from Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In: Méndez-Vilas, A. (ed.) Current research, technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology, pp. 88–94. Formatex, Badajoz (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Berberich, G.: Identifikation rezenter gasführender Störungszonen in der West- und Hocheifel mithilfe von Bioindikatoren. PhD thesis, University of Duisburg-Essen, (2010)

  • Berberich, G., Klimetzek, D., Schreiber, U., Berberich, M.: Geogenic gases and red wood ant clusters as indicators for neotectonic activity at the peninsula Bodanrück (south West Germany). Geophys. Res. Abstr. 14, EGU2012–EGU3488 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Berberich, G., Klimetzek, D., Wöhler, C., Grumpe, A.: Statistical correlation between red wood ant sites and tectonically active fault structures. Mitt. Dt. G. a. a. E. 19, 45–50 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Berberich, G., Grumpe, A., Berberich, M., Klimetzek, D., Wöhler, C.: Are red wood ants (Formica rufa-group) tectonic indicators? A statistical approach. Ecol. Indic. (2016). doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.10.055

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernasconi, C.: Integrative taxonomy of the Formica rufa group (red wood ants). PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne-DEE and Museum of Zoology of Lausanne, (2010)

  • Bos, N., Sundström, L., Fuchs, S., Freitak, D.: Ants medicate to fight disease. Evolution. (2015). doi:10.1111/evo.12752

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, J.D., Day, A.M., Taylor, S.R., Tomalin, L.E., Morgan, B.A., Veal, E.A.: A Peroxiredoxin promotes H2O2 signaling and oxidative stress resistance by oxidizing a Thioredoxin family protein. Cell Rep. 5, 1425–1435 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Büchi, U.P., Schlanke, S., Müller, E.: Zur Geologie der Thermalwasserbohrung Konstanz und ihre sedimentpetrographische Korrelation mit der Erdölbohrung Kreuzlingen. Bull. Ver. Schweiz. Petrol.-Geol. u. -Ing. 42, 25–33 (1976)

    Google Scholar 

  • Butt, C.R.M., Gole, M.J., Dyck, W.: Helium. Handb. Explor. Geochem. 7, 303–352 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ciotoli, G., Lombardi, S., Morandi, S., Zarlenga, F.: A multidisciplinary, statistical approach to study the relationships between helium leakage and neotectonic activity in a gas province: the Vasto basin, Abruzzo-Molise (Central Italy). Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B. 88, 355–372 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  • Comba, P., Kerscher, M., Krause, T., Schöler, H.F.: Iron-catalysed oxidation and halogenation of organic matter in nature. Environ. Chem. (2015). doi:10.1071/EN14240

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, T.A., Emerson, D.E.: Direct determination of the helium 3 content of atmospheric air by mass spectrometry. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. (1990). doi:10.1029/JD095iD04p03565

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, A.L.: The correlation coefficient. In: Edwards, A.L. (ed.) An introduction to linear regression and correlation, pp. 33–46. Freeman, San Francisco (1976)

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisner, T., Hendry, L.B., Peakall, D.B., Meinwald, J.: 2,5-dichlorophenol (from ingested herbicide?) in defensive secretion of grasshopper. Science. 172, 277–278 (1971)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ernst, W.: Tektonische Untersuchungen mit der Gasmethode im westlichen Bodenseegebiet und im Tessin bei Lugano (Schweiz). Bull. Ver. Schweiz. Petrol.-Geol. u. -Ing. 37, 37–50 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends (2016). Accessed 31 July 2016

  • Etiope, G.: Geological methane. In: Reay, D., Smith, P., van Amstel, A. (eds.) Methane and climate change, pp. 42–61. Earthscan, London (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Etiope, G., Ciccioli, P.: Earth’s degassing: a missing ethane and propane source. Science. 323, 478 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Filipsson, A.F., Åseda, J.B., Karlsson, S.: Limonene. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 5. WHO Geneva (1998)

  • Franzke, H.J., Werner, W., Wetzel, H.-U.: Die Anwendung von Satellitenbilddaten zur tektonischen Analyse des Schwarzwalds und des angrenzenden Oberrheingrabens. Jh. Landesamt f. Geologie Rohstoffe Bergbau Baden-Württemberg. 39, 25–54 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  • Frouz, J., Kalcík, J., Cudlín, P.: Accumulation of phosphorus in nest of red wood ants Formica s. Str. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 42, 269–275 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gäb, S., Hellpointner, E., Turner, W.V., Korte, F.: Hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide and bis (hydroxymethyl) peroxide from gas-phase ozonolysis of naturally occurring alkenes. Nature. 316, 535–536 (1985)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graedel, T.E., Keene, W.C.: Tropospheric budget of reactive chlorine. Global Biogeochem. Cy. 9, 47–77 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grant, R.A., Halliday, T., Balderer, W.P., Leuenberger, F., Newcomer, M., Cyr, G., Freund, F.T.: Ground water chemistry changes before major earthquakes and possible effects on animals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. (2011). doi:10.3390/ijerph8061936

    Google Scholar 

  • Gribble, G.W.: Naturally occurring organohalogen compounds – A comprehensive update. Progress in the chemistry of natural organic products 91, p 613 (2010)

  • Gribble, G.W.: A recent survey of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds. Environ. Chem. 12, 396–405 (2015). doi:10.1071/EN15002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Habermehl, G.: Gift-Tiere und ihre Waffen. Eine Einführung für Biologen, Chemiker und Mediziner. Ein Leitfaden für Touristen. Springer, Berlin (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  • Haiber, G., Jacob, G., Niedan, V., Nkusi, G., Schöler, H.F.: The occurrence of trichloroacetic acid (tcaa) - indications of a natural production? Chemosphere. 33, 839–849 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haselmann, K.F., Ketola, R.A., Laturnus, F., Lauritsen, F.R., Grøn, C.: Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites. Atmos. Environ. 34, 187–193 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haselmann, K.F., Laturnus, F., Grøn, C.: Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site. Water Air Soil Pollut. 139, 35–41 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinkle, M.E.: Factors affecting concentrations of helium and carbon dioxide in soil gases. In: Durrance, E.M., Galimov, E.M., Hinkle, M.E., Reimer, G.M., Sugisaki, R., Augustithis, S.S. (eds.) Geochemistry of gaseous elements and compounds, pp. 421–448. Theophrastus Publications, Athens (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hjelm, O., Johansson, E., Öberg, G.: Production of organically bound halogens by the litter-degrading fungus Lepista nuda. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1509–1515 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoekstra, E.J., Verhagen, F.J.M., Field, J.A., De Leer, E.W.B., Brinkman, U.A.T.: Natural production of chloroform by fungi. Phytochemistry. 49, 91–97 (1998a)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoekstra, E.J., de Leer, E.W.B., Brinkman, U.A.T.: Natural formation of chloroform and brominated trihalomethanes in soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 3724–3729 (1998b)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoekstra, E.J., Duyzer, J.H., de Leer, E.W.B., Brinkman, U.A.T.: Chloroform-concentration gradients in soil air and atmospheric air, and emission fluxes from soil. Atmos. Environ. 35, 61–70 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huber, S.G., Kotte, K., Schöler, H.F., Williams, J.: Natural abiotic formation of trihalomethanes in soil: results from laboratory studies and field samples. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 4934–4939 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunkeler, D., Laier, T., Breider, F., Jacobsen, O.S.: Demonstrating a natural origin of chloroform in groundwater using stable carbon isotopes. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2012). doi:10.1021/es204585d

    Google Scholar 

  • Isidorov, V.A.: Organic chemistry of the earth’s atmosphere. Springer, Berlin (1990)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • ISO 10390: Soil quality -- Determination of pH. DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung, Beuth (2005)

  • Jacobsen, O.S., Laier, T., Juhler, R.K., Kristiansen, S.M., Dichmann, E., Brinck, K., Juhl, M.M., Grøn, C. Forekomst og naturlig produktion af chloroform i grundvand. Hovedrapport Bilagsbind. Miljøministeriet. By- og Landskabsstyrelsen, pp. 120 (2007)

  • Jacobsen, O.S., Albers, C.N., Laier, T.: Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: relevance for groundwater quality. EGU Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015–EGU8947 (2015a)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobsen, O.S., Albers, C.N., Laier, T., Hunkeler, D.: Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater. EGU Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015–EG15848 (2015b)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jayaratne, E.R., Ling, X., Morawska, L.: Role of vegetation in enhancing radon concentration and ion production in the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(15), 6350–6355 (2011)

  • Johansson, E., Sandén, P., Oeberg, G.: Spatial patterns of organic chlorine and chloride in Swedish forest soil. Chemosphere. 52, 391–397 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, S.: Chemical Based Communication and its Role in Decision Making Within the Social Insects. PhD Thesis, University of Sussex (2013)

  • Kaal, E.E.J., Field, J.A., Joyce, T.W.: Increasing ligninolytic enzyme activities in several white-rot basidiomycetes by nitrogen-sufficient media. Bioresour. Technol. 53, 133–139 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kadochová, S., Frouz, J.: Thermoregulation strategies in ants in comparison to other social insects, with a focus on red wood ants (Formica rufa group). Version 2. F1000Res. 2, 280 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaib, M., Dittebrand, H.: The poison gland of the ant Myrmecaria eumenoides and its role in recruitment communication. Chemoecology. 1, 3–11 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keppler, F., Eiden, R., Niedan, V., Pracht, J., Schöler, H.F.: Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter. Nature. 403, 298–301 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khalil, M.A.K., Rasmussen, R.A., French, J.R.J., Holt, J.A.: The influence of termites on atmospheric trace gases: CH4, CO2, CHCL3, N2O, CO, H2, and light hydrocarbons. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95, 3619–3634 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khalil, M.A.K., Moore, R.M., Harper, D.B., Lobert, J.M., Erickson, D.J., Koropalov, V., Sturges, W.T., Keene, W.C.: Natural emissions of chlorine-containing gases: reactive chlorine emissions inventory. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 104, 8333–8346 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kindler, T.P., Chameides, W.L., Wine, P.H., Cunnold, D.M., Alyea, F.N., Franklin, J.A.: The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2C14, C2HCl3, CH3CC13, and CHCl3. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 100, 1235–1251 (1995)

  • Kiyak, M., Polymeris, G.S., Kiyak, N.G.: Environmental dose rate assessment from an active fault zone in western Anatolia, Turkey: towards retrospective epidemiology. Open J. Archaeometry. (2014). doi:10.4081/arc.2014.5256

    Google Scholar 

  • Klimetzek, D.: Die Variabilität der Standortansprüche hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa-Gruppe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitt. Bad. Landesver. f. Naturkunde u. Naturschutz N.F. 11, 9–25 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  • Klimetzek, D., Kaiser, M.: Zur Ökologie der Formica rufa-Gruppe. Waldhygiene. 20, 243–254 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurylo, M.J., Rodriguez, J.M., Andreae, M.O., Atlas, E.L., Blake, D.R., Butler, J.H., Lal, S., Lary, D.J., Midgley, P.M., Montzka, S.A., Novelli, P.C., Reeves, C.E., Simmonds, P.G., Steele, L.P., Sturges, W.T., Weiss, R.F., Yokouchi, Y.: Short-lived ozone-related compounds. In: Albritton, D.L., Aucamp, P.J., Megie, G., Watson, R.T. (eds.) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1998. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  • Laturnus, F., Mehrtens, G., Grøn, C.: Haloperoxidase-like activity in spruce forest soil – a source of volatile halogenated organic compounds? Chemosphere. 31, 3709–3719 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laturnus, F., Lauritsen, F.R., Grøn, C.: Chloroform in a pristine aquifer system: toward an evidence of biogenic origin. Water Resour. Res. (2000). doi:10.1029/2000WR900194

    Google Scholar 

  • Laturnus, F., Haselmann, K.F., Borch, T., Grøn, C.: Terrestrial natural sources of trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3) – an overview. Biogeochemistry. 60, 121–139 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laturnus, F., Fahimi, I., Gryndler, M., Hartmann, A., Heal, M.R., Matucha, M., Schöler, H.F., Schroll, R., Svensson, T.: Natural formation and degradation of Chloroacetic acids and volatile Organochlorines in Forest soil. Challenges to understanding. Environ. Sci. Pollut. R. (2005). doi:10.1065/espr2005.06.262

    Google Scholar 

  • LfU-BW: Radioaktivität in Baden-Württemberg. Jahresbericht 1998–2001. Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg: Radioaktivität und Strahlenschutz Band 7, Karlsruhe (2003)

  • Lieser, K.H.: Einführung in die Kernchemie. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1980)

  • Manahan, S.E.: Environmental science, technology, and chemistry - environmental chemistry. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  • Mulder, I., Huber, S.G., Krause, T., Zetzsch, C., Kotte, K., Dultz, S., Schöler, H.F.: A new purge and trap headspace technique to analyse low volatile compounds from fluid inclusions of rocks and minerals. Chem. Geol. 358, 148–155 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Müller, W.H., Naef, H., Graf, H.R.: Geologische Entwicklung der Nordschweiz, Neotektonik und Langzeitszenarien Zürcher Weinland. Nagra Techn. Ber. ntb 99–08 (2002)

  • Nielsen, L.H.: Late Triassic – Jurassic development of the Danish basin and the Fennoscandian border zone, southern Scandinavia. Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. 1, 459–526 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, E., Ladefoged, O., Søborg, I.: Evaluation of health hazards by exposure to d-Limonene and proposal of a health-based quality criterion for ambient air. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Project No. 1496, 1–36 (2013)

  • Ortega, I.K., Suni, T., Boy, M., Grönholm, T., Manninen, H.E., Nieminen, T., Ehn, M., Junninen, H., Hakola, H., Hellén, H., Valmari, T., Arvela, H., Zegelin, S., Hughes, D., Kitchen, M., Cleugh, H., Worsnop, D.R., Kulmala, M., Kerminen, V.-M.: New insights into nocturnal nucleation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2012). doi:10.5194/acp-12-4297-2012

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavoni, N.: Seismotektonik Nordschweiz. Nagra Techn. Ber. ntb 84–45, (1984)

  • Pedersen, S.A.S.: Structural analysis of the Rubjerg Knude Glaciotectonic complex, Vendsyssel, northern Denmark. Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. Bull. 8, 1–192 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen, S.A.S. & Petersen, K.S.: Geological map of Denmark, 1:50 000, Hanstholm. Copenhagen. Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. World Stress Map Project (2002)

  • Perkins, S.: Forest-soil fungi emit gases that harm ozone layer. Sci. News. 160, 389 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pfiffner, O.A., Deichmann, N.: Seismotektonik in der Nordschweiz. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB, 14–26 (2014)

  • Pirajno, F.: The geology and tectonic settings of China’s mineral deposits. Springer, Dordrecht (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Prather, M., Derwent, R., Ehhalt, D., Fraser, P., Sanhueza, E., Zhou, X.: Chapter 2: Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry. In: Houghton, J.T., Meira Filho, L.G., Bruce, J., Lee, H., Callander, B.A., Haites, E., Harris, N., Maskell, K. (eds.) Climate change 1994: Radiative forcing of climate change. pp. 73-126. IPCC/Cambridge Univ. Press, New York (1995)

  • Reimann, C., Filzmoser, P., Garrett, R.G.: Background and threshold: critical comparison of methods of determination. Sci. Total Environ. 346, 1–16 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rhee, S.G., Kang, S.W., Jeong, W., Chang, T.-S., Yang, K.-S., Woo, H.A.: Intracellular messenger function of hydrogen peroxide and its regulation by peroxiredoxins. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17, 183–189 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sakuma, M., Fukami, H.: Aggregation arrestant pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): isolation and structure elucidation of blattellastanoside-a and -B. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 2521–2541 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schreiner, A.: Geol. Karte 1:50.000 Baden-Württ. Erl. Bl. Hegau und westl. Bodensee. Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (1992)

  • Shapiro, S.S., Wilk, M.B.: An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika. 52, 591–611 (1965)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Solomon, S., Wuebbles, D., Isaksen, I., Kiehl, J., Lal, M., Simon, P., Sze, N.-D.: Ozone depletion potentials, global warming potentials and future chlorine/bromine loading. Chapter 13 in. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report 37, pp. 13.01–13.36. World Meteorological Organization Report, Geneva, Switzerland (1995)

  • Sonenshine, D.E., Silverstein, R.M., Collins, L.A., Saunders, M., Flynt, C., Homsher, P.J.: Foveal glands, source of sex pheromone production in the ixodid tick Dermacentor andersoni stiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 3, 695–706 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Storey, K.B., Storey, J.M.: Oxygen: stress and adaptation in cold hardy insects. In: Denlinger, D.L., Lee, R.E. (eds.) Low temperature biology of insects, pp. 141–165. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2010)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Sturrock, P.A., Steinitz, G., Fischbach, E., Javorsek II, D., Jenkins, J.H.: Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence. Astropart. Phys. (2012). doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.04.009

  • Suni, T., Kulmala, M., Hirsikko, A., Bergman, T., Laakso, L., Aalto, P.P., Leuning, R., Cleugh, H., Zegelin, S., Hughes, D., van Gorsel, E., Kitchen, M., Vana, M., Hörrak, U., Mirme, S., Mirme, A., Sevanto, S., Twining, J., Tadros, C.: Formation and characteristics of ions and charged aerosol particles in a native Australian eucalypt forest. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 129–139 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tassi, F., Capecchiacci, F., Cabassi, J., Calabrese, S., Vaselli, O., Rouwet, D., Pecoraino, G., Chiodini, G.: Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy). J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. (2012). doi:10.1029/2012JD017642

    Google Scholar 

  • Tsukuda, T.: Radon-gas monitoring by gamma-ray measurements on the ground for detecting crustal activity changes: preliminary study by repeat survey method. B. Earthq. Res. I. Tokyo. 83, 227–241 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Veal, E.A., Day, A.M., Morgan, B.A.: Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling. Mol. Cell. 26, 1–14 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Véron, J.: The alpine Molasse Basin - review of petroleum geology and remaining potential. Bull. Angew. Geol. 10, 75–86 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Voltattorni, N., Lombardi, S., Beaubien, S.E.: Gas migration from two mine districts: the Tolfa (Lazio, Central Italy) and the Neves-Corvo (Baixo Alentejo, Portugal) case studies. J. Geochem. Explor. 152, 37–53 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Z.L., Lu, J.-d., Feng, M.-G.: Primary roles of two dehydrogenases in the mannitol metabolism and multi-stress tolerance of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Environ. Microbiol. (2012). doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02654.x

    Google Scholar 

  • Warneck, P., Williams, J.: The atmospheric Chemist’s companion: numerical data for use in the atmospheric sciences. Springer, Dodrecht (2012)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Watling, R., Harper, D.B.: Chloromethane production by wood-rotting fungi and an estimate of the global flux to the atmosphere. Mycol. Res. 102, 769–787 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wellenstein, G.: Waldbewohnende Ameisen, ihre Bedeutung, ihre Biologie, ihre Hege und ihr Schutz. Allgäuer Zeitungs-Verlag, Kempten (1990)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Anke Jakob, Jan Hartmann, Fritz and Stefan Laukenmann, Thomas Ewert, Mark Schumann, Chris Schneider,  and Erich Müller for their valuable support in taking soil and nest gas samples.

The 72 h-gas monitoring was funded by the Research Department of University of Heidelberg. TS and HFS are grateful for the financial support of the German Science Foundation (DFG Research Unit 763, HaloProc).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gabriele M. Berberich.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Procedures did not imply significant disturbance of ants and were all in in accordance with relevant German Federal and State (BW) animal welfare legislation.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 165 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Berberich, G.M., Sattler, T., Klimetzek, D. et al. Halogenation processes linked to red wood ant nests (Formica spp.) and tectonics. J Atmos Chem 74, 261–281 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-016-9358-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-016-9358-0

Keywords

  • Organohalogens
  • Red wood ants
  • CHCl3
  • H2O2
  • Soil gas
  • Seismically active area
  • Fault zone tracer gas