Advertisement

Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 113–123 | Cite as

A reassessment of the soil sink for atmospheric carbon tetrachloride based upon static flux chamber measurements

  • James D. HappellEmail author
  • Yudania Mendoza
  • Kelly Goodwin
Article

Abstract

Static flux chamber measurements of CCl4 uptake by soils in boreal, subtropical and tropical forests have been used to reassess the sink strength for this ozone depleting chemical. Happell and Roche (Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(2), 1088–1091, 2003) used flux estimates from soil concentration gradients to calculate a partial CCl4 atmospheric lifetime (τsoil) of 90 years. More recently, it is has been assumed that a better estimate of τsoil is 195 years (Montzka et al. 2011). In the work here, the rate of CCl4 uptake was calculated from 453 flux chamber measurements using an exponential fit to the chamber CCl4 concentration change with time. This analysis indicated that the flux rate estimate in Happell and Roche (Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(2) 1088–1091, 2003) was overestimated by 2.75, yielding a new estimate of τsoil for CCl4 of 245 years. Significant correlations of CCl4 uptake to temperature, soil moisture, or time of year were not observed. This work provides additional evidence that CCl4 uptake by soils is a common process and needs to be considered when developing an atmospheric budget for this compound.

Keywords

CCl4 Sink Soil uptake Flux chamber Atmospheric budget 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant number ATM-0400429. We wish to thank Charlene Grall, Jeff Happell, Lisa Matragrano and Nelson Melo for their help in the field. We also need to thank the staffs of the Meanook Biological Research Station and the El Verde Research Station for providing access to field sites and laboratory and housing space. The staff of the Deering Estate provided access to the field sites located there.

References

  1. Daniel, J.S., Velder, G.J.M., Morgenstern, O., Toohey, D.M., Wallington, T.J., Wuebbles, D.J., Akiyoshi, H., Bais, A.F., Flemning, E.L., Jackman, C.H., Kuijpers, L.J.M., McFarlan, M., Montzka, S.A., Ross, M.N., Tilmes, S., Tully, M.B.: A focus on information and options for policymakers. In: Ennis, C.A. (ed.) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2010, global ozone research and monitoring project–report no. 52, pp. 321–377. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (2011)Google Scholar
  2. Happell, J.D., Roche, M.P.: Soils: a global sink of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(2), 1088–1091 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Happell, J.D., Wallace, D.W.R.: Removal of atmospheric CCl4 under bulk aerobic conditions in groundwater and soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 1244–1252 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hutchinson, G.L., Mosier, A.R.: Improved soil cover method for field measurement of nitrous oxide fluxes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 311–316 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Liu, X.F.: Evidence of biodegradation of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in soils: field and microcosm studies. PhD thesis. pp 1–139. Columbia University, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  6. Mendoza, Y., Goodwin, K.D., Happell, J.D.: Microbial removal of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in bulk aerobic soils. Appl. Environ. Microb. 77, 5835–5841 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. Montkza, S.A., Reimann, S., Engel, A., Krüger, K., O’Doherty, S., Sturges, W.T., Blake, D., Dorf, M., Fraser, P., Froidevaux, L., Jucks, K., Kreher, K., Kurylo, M.J., Mellouki, A., Miller, J., Nielsen, O.J., Orkin, V.L., Prinn, R.G., Rhew, R., Santee, M.L., Stohl, A., Verdonik, D.: Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODSs) and related chemicals. In: Ennis, C.A. (ed.) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2010, global ozone research and monitoring project–report no. 52, pp. 1–108. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (2011)Google Scholar
  8. Pedersen, A.R., Pedersen, S.O., Shelde, K.: A comprehensive approach to soil-atmosphere trace-gas flux estimation with static chambers. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61, 888–892 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Potter, C.S., Davidson, E.A., Verchot, L.: Estimation of global biogeochemical controls and seasonality in soil methane consumption. Chemosphere 32, 2219–2245 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rhew, R.C., Miller, B.R., Weiss, R.F.: Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform fluxes in Southern California ecosystems. Atmos. Environ. 42, 7135–7140 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shorter, J.H., Kolb, C.E., Crill, P.M., Kerwin, R.A., Talbot, R.W., Hines, M.E., Harriss, R.C.: Rapid degradation of atmospheric methyl bromide in soils. Nature 377, 717–719 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Simmonds, P.G., Cunnold, D.M., Weiss, R.F., Prinn, R.G., Fraser, P.J., McCulloch, A., Alyea, F.N., O’Doherty, S.: Global trends and emissions estimates of CCl4 from in-situ background observations from July 1978 to June 1996. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16017–16027 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Slattery, J.C., Bird, R.B.: Calculation of the diffusion coefficient dilute gases and of the self-diffusion coefficient of dense gases. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 4, 137–142 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang, J.X., Qin, P., Sun, S.C.: The flux of chloroform and tetrachloromethane along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh, East China. Environ. Pollut. 148, 10–20 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yvon-Lewis, S.A., Butler, J.H.: The effect of oceanic uptake on the atmospheric lifetime of selected trace gases. J. Geophys. Res. 107(D20), 4414–4423 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Happell
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yudania Mendoza
    • 1
  • Kelly Goodwin
    • 2
  1. 1.Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Department of Ocean ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems DivisionNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)MiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations