Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 169–187 | Cite as

Air pollutant emission rates and concentrations in medieval churches

  • G. LoupaEmail author
  • S. Rapsomanikis
Original Paper


A series of indoor air quality parameters were determined in two medieval churches, in Cyprus (temperature, relative humidity, total and UV solar radiation, CO2 indoors and O3, NO, NO2 *, HNO3 *, HCl, HCOOH, CH3COOH indoors and outdoors). These data were used as input in a validated indoor air quality model to predict indoor air pollutant source strengths and species concentrations that resulted from dark or photochemical reactions. The NO and NO2 emission rates due to the burning of incense or candles were estimated. Model results revealed that heterogeneous NO formation takes place simultaneously with the heterogeneous HONO formation. Also, model application has shown that indoor NOx emissions resulted in decreased free radical concentrations, in contrast to the organic compound emissions, which increased free radical concentrations. This effect of indoor emissions on indoor radicals can partly explain the indoor enhancement/depression of indoor gaseous acid formation.


Indoor model-indoor chemistry Incense emissions Candle emissions Radical concentrations 



The authors would like to thank Dr. I. Kioutsioukis for his help in modelling ambient air pollutant concentrations.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and of Pollution Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece

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