Advertisement

Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 74, Issue 5, pp 485–498 | Cite as

Microstructure measurements and finescale parameterization assessment of turbulent mixing in the northern South China Sea

  • Hui Sun
  • Qingxuan Yang
  • Jiwei Tian
Original Article
  • 117 Downloads

Abstract

Both microscale and finescale measurements were conducted along 20°N and 21°N in the northern South China Sea (SCS) during July 2007. Spatial variability of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate was examined, and two finescale parameterizations were assessed and compared. TKE dissipation rates along the 21°N section were found to be much higher than those along 20°N; in particular, remarkably high TKE dissipation rates existed near the Luzon Strait and around the Dongsha Plateau, which were likely caused by internal tides and internal solitary waves, respectively. The Gregg–Henyey scaling does not work well in the northern SCS, while the MacKinnon–Gregg scaling with a modified parameter matches the observations in both magnitude and variability. One explanation is that the large-scale/low-mode shear mainly comes from low-frequency internal waves such as internal tides, which are not described well by the Garrett–Munk spectrum.

Keywords

TKE dissipation rate Diapycnal diffusivity South China Sea Finescale parameterization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is jointly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (Grant 2016YFC1401403), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41576009), the State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science (Project LTO1601), and the Global Change and Air–Sea Interaction Project (Grants GASI-IPOVAI-01-03 and GASI-IPOVAI-01-02). We thank the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for providing the ETOPO1 data (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html).

References

  1. Alford MH, MacKinnon JA, Nash JD, Simmons H, Pickering A, Klymak JM, Pinkel R, Sun O, Rainville L, Musgrave R (2011) Energy flux and dissipation in Luzon Strait: two tales of two ridges. J Phys Oceanogr 41:2211–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batchelor GK (1959) Small scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in a fluid. J Fluid Mech 5:113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buijsman MC, Legg S, Klymak J (2012) Double-ridge internal tide interference and its effect on dissipation in Luzon Strait. J Phys Oceanogr 42:1337–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter GS, Gregg MC, Lien RC (2005) Internal waves, solitary-like waves, and mixing on the monterey bay shelf. Cont Shelf Res 25(12):1499–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaigneau A, Pizarro O, Rojas W (2008) Global climatology of near-inertial current characteristics from Lagrangian observations. Geophys Res Lett 35:L13603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang MH, Lien RC, Tang TY, D’Asaro EA, Yang YJ (2006) Energy flux of nonlinear internal waves in northern South China Sea. Geophys Res Lett 33:L03607.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025196 Google Scholar
  7. Garrett CJR, Munk WH (1972) Space-time scales of internal waves. Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 2:225–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garrett CJR, Munk WH (1975) Space-time scales of internal waves: a progress report. J Geophys Res 80:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gill AE (1982) Atmosphere–ocean dynamics. Academic Press, San Diego, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Gregg MC (1989) Scaling turbulent dissipation in the thermocline. J Geophys Res 94:9686–9698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gregg MC (1999) Uncertainties and limitations in measuring ε and χT. J Atmos Ocean Technol 16:1483–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gregg MC, Sanford TB, Winkel DP (2003) Reduced mixing from the breaking of internal waves in equatorial waters. Nature 422:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guan S, Zhao W, Huthnance J, Tian J, Wang J (2014) Observed upper ocean response to typhoon Megi (2010) in the Northern South China Sea. J Geophys Res Oceans 119:3134–3157.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JC009661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jan S, Chern CS, Wang J, Chao SY (2007) Generation of diurnal K1 internal tide in the Luzon Strait and its influence on surface tide in the South China Sea. J Geophys Res 112:C06019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klymak JM, Alford MH, Pinkel R, Lien RC, Yang YJ, Tang TY (2011) The breaking and scattering of the internal tide on a continental slope. J Phys Oceanogr 41:926–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kunze E, Firing E, Hummon JM, Chereskin TK, Thurnherr AM (2006) Global abyssal mixing from lowered ADCP shear and CTD strain profiles. J Phys Oceanogr 36:1553–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Large WG, McWilliams JC, Doney SC (1994) Oceanic vertical mixing: a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev Geophys 32:363–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liang CR, Chen GY, Shang XD (2017) Observations of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the upper central South China Sea. Ocean Dyn 67(5):597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lien RC, Tang TY, Chang MH, D’Asaro EA (2005) Energy of nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea. Geophys Res Lett 32:L05615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu Z, Lozovatsky I (2012) Upper pycnocline turbulence in the northern South China Sea. Chin Sci Bull 57:2302–2306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lozovatsky I, Fernando HJS, Planella-Morato J, Liu Z, Lee JH, Jinadasa SUP (2017) Probability distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in ocean: observations and approximations. J Geophys Res Oceans 122(10):8293–8308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lu ZM, Chen GY, Xie XH, Xu XX, Shang XD (2009) Research on microstructural characteristics of Marine mixing in the northern south China sea. Prog Nat Sci 19(6):657–663 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  23. Lu YZ, Zhou SQ, Cen XR, Guo SX, Shang XD (2014) Salt finger and turbulent mixing in the upper layer of the central southern south china sea. Oceanol Limnol Sin 45(6):1158–1167 [in Chinese with English abstract] Google Scholar
  24. MacKinnon J, Gregg M (2003) Shear and baroclinic energy flux on the summer New England shelf. J Phys Oceanogr 33:1462–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mackinnon J, Gregg M (2005) Spring mixing: turbulence and internal waves during restratification on the New England shelf. J Phys Oceanogr 35:2425–2443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mellor GL, Yamada T (1982) Developement of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev Geophys Space Phys 20:851–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nasmyth PW (1970) Ocean turbulence. PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  28. Niwa Y, Hibiya T (2004) Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the East China Sea. J Geophys Res 109:C04027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oakey NS (1982) Determination of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy from simultaneous temperature and velocity shear microstructure measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 12:256–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Osborn TR (1980) Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 10:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Osborn TR, Cox CS (1972) Oceanic fine structure. Geophys. Fluid Dyn 3:321–345Google Scholar
  32. Qu T, Girton JB, Whitehead JA (2006) Deepwater overflow through Luzon Strait. J Geophys Res 111:C01002.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ruddick B (1983) A practical indicator of the stability of the water column to double-diffusive activity. Deep Sea Res 30(10):1105–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schmitt RW, Ledwell JR, Montgomery ET, Polzin KL, Toole JM (2005) Enhanced diapycnal mixing by salt fingers in the thermocline of the tropical Atlantic. Science 308(5722):685–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shang XD, Liang CR, Chen GY (2017) Spatial distribution of turbulent mixing in the upper ocean of the south china sea. Ocean Sci Discuss 13(3):1–19Google Scholar
  36. St. Laurent L (2008) Turbulent dissipation on the margins of the South China Sea. Geophys Res Lett 35:L23615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. St. Laurent L, Simmons H, Tang TY, Wang YH (2011) Turbulent properties of internal waves in the South China Sea. Oceanography 24(4):78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sun H, Wang Q (2016) Microstructure observations in the upper layer of the South China Sea. J Oceanogr 72(5):777–786.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-016-0371-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sun H, Yang Q, Zhao W, Liang X, Tian J (2016) Temporal variability of diapycnal mixing in the northern South China Sea. J Geophys Res Oceans 121:8840–8848.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tian J, Yang Q, Zhao W (2009) Enhanced diapycnal mixing in the South China Sea. J Phys Oceanogr 39:3191–3203.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO3899.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang X, Peng S, Liu Z, Huang R, Qian Y, Li Y (2016) Tidal mixing in the south china sea: an internal-tide-energetics-based estimate. J Phys Oceanogr 46(1):107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang X, Liu Z, Peng S (2017) Impact of tidal mixing on water mass transformation and circulation in the South China Sea. J Phys Oceanogr 47(2):419–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wolk F, Yamazaki H, Seuront L, Lueck RG (2002) A new free-fall profiler for measuring biophysical microstructure. J Atmos Ocean Technol 19(5):780–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xie XH, Shang XD, van Haren H et al (2011) Observations of parametric subharmonic instability-induced near-inertial waves equatorward of the critical diurnal latitude. Geophys Res Lett 38:L05603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xu J, Xie J, Chen Z, Cai S, Long X (2012) Enhanced mixing induced by internal solitary waves in the South China Sea. Cont Shelf Res 49:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang Q, Tian J, Zhao W, Liang X, Zhou L (2014) Observations of turbulence on the shelf and slope of northern South China Sea. Deep Sea Res I 87:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang Q, Zhao W, Liang X, Tian J (2016) Three-dimensional distribution of turbulent mixing in the south china sea. J Phys Oceanogr 46:769–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhao Z, Klemas V, Zheng Q, Yan XH (2004) Remote sensing evidence for baroclinic tide origin of internal solitary waves in the northeastern South China Sea. Geophys Res Lett 31:L06302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou C, Zhao W, Tian J, Yang Q, Qu T (2014) Variability of the deep water overflow in the Luzon Strait. J Phys Oceanogr 44:2972–2986CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Oceanography Laboratory/CIMSTOcean University of China, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations