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Synthesis, Structural Characterization, Hirshfeld Analysis and AIM Analysis of 2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-6-phenyldibenzo[d,g][1,3,6,2]-dioxa-selenaphosphocine and its Oxide and Selenide Derivatives

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The reaction of 2,2′-selenobis(4,6-di-tert-butyl phenol) with equimolar amount of dichlorophenylphosphine afforded the 8-membered cyclic phosphonite, PhP{-OC6H2(tBu)2(µ-Se)(tBu)2C6H2O-} (1). The reaction of 1 with 30% aq H2O2 resulted in the oxidation of both phosphorus and selenium to give PhP(O){-OC6H2(tBu)2(µ-Se(O))(tBu)2C6H2O-} (2) in quantitative yield. Similar reaction of 1 with one equivalent of trimethylamine-N-oxide yielded the phosphine oxide derivative, PhP(O){-OC6H2(tBu)2(µ-Se)(tBu)2C6H2O-} (3). The reaction of 1 with gray selenium in 1:1 molar ratio afforded PhP(Se){-OC6H2(tBu)2(µ-Se)(tBu)2C6H2O-} (4) in good yield. All the derivatives have been structurally characterized. Both the compounds 2 and 3 crystallized with the asymmetric unit containing a whole molecule, whereas the compound 4 crystallized with a CH2Cl2 molecule. All of these molecules showed intermolecular C−H⋅⋅⋅O and C−H⋅⋅⋅Se hydrogen bonding interactions which play major role in the crystal packing to form a three-dimensional array. Hirshfeld surface analysis, dnorm and two-dimensional fingerprint plots were investigated to validate the contributions of the different intermolecular contacts within the supramolecular structure. A Hirshfeld surface analysis indicated that the most significant contributions to the crystal packing of 2 are from H⋅⋅⋅H (72%), C⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅C (15%), O⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅O (10.1%) and Se⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅Se (2.8%) contacts, and those for 3 are from H⋅⋅⋅H (74.1%), C⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅C (14.2%), O⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅O (5.7%) and Se⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅Se (5.7%) contacts, while those for 4 are from H⋅⋅⋅H (75.9%), C⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅C (10.5%), O⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅O (1%) and Se⋅⋅⋅H/H⋅⋅⋅Se (12.5%) contacts. Non-covalent interactions between C–H and O were observed in the molecular structures of 24. These weak interactions were also assessed by DFT calculations in terms of their non-covalent interaction plots and QTAIM analysis.

Graphical Abstract

This paper describes the synthesis and crystal structures of three selenaphosphocine derivatives. The reaction of 2,2′-selenobis(4,6-di-tert-butyl phenol) with equimolar amount of dichlorophenylphosphine produce the 8-membered cyclic phosphonite 1. The reaction of 1 with 30% aq H2O2 and elemental selenium afford three different macrocyclic compounds.

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Data Availability

Data set generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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MSB thanks the Science and Engineering Research Board, New Delhi, for financial support of this work through grant CRG/2019/000040. We also thank the Department of Chemistry Instrumentation Facilities, IIT Bombay, for spectral and analytical data. PK thanks CSIR, New Delhi for research fellowships (JRF and SRF), DM thanks the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for the Inspire fellowship, HK thanks the IITB for a fellowship. J.T.M. thanks the Louisiana Board of Regents for the purchase of the CCD diffractometer and the Chemistry Department of Tulane University for support of the X-ray laboratory.

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PK, DM, HSK: Conceptualization, interpretation of the data, visualization, methodology and writing-original draft of the manuscript. JTM: Mounting the crystals, collecting data and solving the structures. MSB: Investigation, supervision, revision of the manuscript and approval of the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Joel T. Mague or Maravanji S. Balakrishna.

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Kumar, P., Mondal, D., Kunchur, H.S. et al. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, Hirshfeld Analysis and AIM Analysis of 2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-6-phenyldibenzo[d,g][1,3,6,2]-dioxa-selenaphosphocine and its Oxide and Selenide Derivatives. J Chem Crystallogr 53, 321–335 (2023).

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